A4 autostrada (Poland)

The A4 autostrada in Poland is a 672 km (418 mi) long east–west motorway that runs through southern Poland, along the north side the Sudetes and Carpathian Mountains, from the Polish-German border at Zgorzelec-Görlitz (connecting to the A4 autobahn), through Wrocław, Opole, Gliwice, Katowice, Kraków, Tarnów and Rzeszów, to the Polish-Ukrainian border at Korczowa-Krakovets (connecting to the M10). It is a part of European route E40.

Autostrada A4 shield}}

Autostrada A4
Route information
Part of E40
Length672.75 km (418.03 mi)
Major junctions
FromBundesautobahn 4 number.svg A4 - Polish-German Border at Görlitz-Zgorzelec
 A18-PL.svg A18 near Krzyżowa

S3-PL.svg S3 near Legnica
A8-PL.svg A8 and S8-PL.svg S8 near Wrocław
A1-PL.svg A1 near Gliwice
S1-PL.svg S1 near Mysłowice
S7-PL.svg S7 and S52-PL.svg S52 near Kraków

S19-PL.svg S19 near Rzeszów
ToPolish-Ukrainian border at Korczowa-Krakovets - M10-CIS.svg M10
Location
RegionsLower Silesian Voivodeship
Opole Voivodeship
Silesian Voivodeship
Lesser Poland Voivodeship
Podkarpackie Voivodeship
Major citiesWrocław, Gliwice, Katowice, Kraków, Rzeszów
Highway system
National roads in Poland
A2A6
Inscription made by Soviet soldiers in 1945: Водрузим над Берлином знамя победы (We shall hoist the flag of victory over Berlin); A4 west of Wrocław.
A4 west of Wrocław with repaved concrete surface
Southern part of Gliwice-Sosnica junction (joining A1 motorway, A4 motorway, national road 44, voivodeship road 902 and a local road exiting Gliwice) - the largest motorway junction in Poland, opened 2009-2010
A4 in Zabrze, opened 2005
A4 near Kraków (Zalas), opened 1980
A4, part of Kraków bypass, opened 2002-2003

The motorway between Wrocław and Kraków (270 km (170 mi)) was constructed between 1976 and 2005. Most of this part is tolled, with fees being collected in toll booths across the motorway.

The section from the German border to Wrocław (151 km (94 mi), not tolled) was constructed between 2002 and 2009, in large part as the repaving of the old concrete motorway constructed from 1933 to 1937 (then the territory of Nazi Germany). The repaved parts are substandard due to lack of emergency lanes and the speed limit is decreased to 110 km/h.

The motorway from Kraków to the Ukrainian border (251 km (156 mi), not tolled) was constructed between 2010 and 2016, making the A4 the first Polish complete border-to-border highway connection.

History of constructionEdit

Some western stretches of this motorway were initially built as a Reichsautobahn by Nazi Germany in the 1930s under her interwar borders. After the Second World War and the takeover of Poland by the communist regime, with her new borders, the existing roads received minimal maintenance and upgrades and became notorious for their poor quality, a phenomenon similar to that observed in East Germany. In effect, the original road served in a virtually unchanged state throughout the whole communist period and the first years afterwards. Reconstruction between 2002 and 2006 removed the old concrete road surface (earlier, a short fragment of A18 was reconstructed between 1993 and 1995, of which 10 km (6.2 mi) are now part of A4), but some aspects of the 1930s standards of construction remain on the stretch from Krzyżowa to Wrocław; for example, the aforementioned section does not have emergency lanes, a feature that is to be added in the future.

The section between Katowice and Kraków was built from 1976 to 1996, and the section between Wrocław and Katowice from 1996 to 2005.

Between 2006 and 2009, the section from the German border to the junction with A18 motorway was constructed, which completed a continuous connection from Germany to Kraków. Also completed in 2009 was the first portion of the motorway east of Kraków (ending on national road 75 junction, near Szarów). The original plan was to finish the rest of the motorway by about 2013, but because of the UEFA decision to host the 2012 UEFA European Football Championship in Poland and Ukraine and the resulting need to improve the road infrastructure connecting the two countries, the date for opening the motorway to traffic was moved up to June 2012. This ambitious target was not attained after multiple delays, some caused by the floods of 2010.

In July 2016, the last missing section of 41 km (25 mi) between Rzeszów and Jarosław was completed. This meant the entire length of the A4 from the German border to the Ukrainian border was completed, making the A4 the first complete major motorway in Poland (second overall, behind the very short A8) and the first completed continuous border-to-border highway connection.

Sections of the motorwayEdit

Motorway section Length Constructed Note
Jędrzychowice (border) - Zgorzelec 1.7 km (1.1 mi) 1994–1996 heavy-load trucks only in 1994, all cars since 1996
Zgorzelec - Krzyżowa 50 km (31 mi) 2007–2009
Krzyżowa - Bielany Wrocławskie 99 km (62 mi) 1933–1937 repaved in 2002 – 2006 (short fragment in 1993 – 1995); section without emergency lanes
Bielany Wrocławskie - Przylesie(Brzeg) 40.7 km (25.3 mi) 1997–2000 first carriageway built 1936 – 1938; reconstructed and second carriageway added in 1997 – 2000; tolls since 1 June 2012 (2012-06-01)
Przylesie(Brzeg) - Nogowczyce 84.5 km (52.5 mi) 2000–2003 some construction before 1945; tolls since 1 June 2012 (2012-06-01)
Nogowczyce - Kleszczów 17.9 km (11.1 mi) 2001–2003 first carriageway built 1936 – 1942[a]; reconstructed and second carriageway added in 2001 – 2003; tolls since 1 June 2012 (2012-06-01)
Kleszczów - Katowice-Murckowska 43 km (27 mi) 1996–2005
Katowice-Murckowska - Mysłowice 6.3 km (3.9 mi) 1989–1996
Mysłowice - Kraków/Balice 53.7 km (33.4 mi) 1976–1991 private operator and tolls since 2000
Kraków/Balice - Kraków/Wieliczka 24 km (15 mi) 1979–2003
Kraków/Wieliczka - Szarów 20 km (12 mi) 2007–2009
Szarów - Tarnów 57 km (35 mi) 2010–2013 opened to traffic in November, 2012, in part with single carriageway only.[1] Both carriageways were fully opened in May, 2013.[2]
Tarnów Północ - Dębica Wschód[3] 34.8 km (21.6 mi) 2010–2014 opened Oct 30/31, 2014.[4][5]
Dębica (interchange Dębica Wschód) - Rzeszów (Centralny)[6][7] 41 km (25 mi) 2010–2013 opened in October, 2013
Rzeszów (Centralny) - Rzeszów(Wschód)[8] 6.9 km (4.3 mi) 2010–2012 opened in September, 2012
Rzeszów(Wschód) - Jarosław[9] 41.2 km (25.6 mi) 2010–2016 originally planned to finish in 2012, delayed until 2014, then contractor abandoned the contract in January 2014 when 70% complete due to dispute with the government over financing. New contract was awarded in September,[10] with construction beginning in October 2014. Opened in July, 2016.[11]
Jarosław - Radymno 24.5 km (15.2 mi) 2010–2013 Jarosław Wschód - Radymno: opened in May, 2013; Jarosław Zachód - Jarosław Wschód: opened in December, 2013.
Radymno - Korczowa[12] 22.6 km (14.0 mi) 2010–2013 originally planned to finish in 2012,[13] opened December 23, 2013[14]
  1. ^ It continued from Kleszczów into Gliwice and today that section is National Road 88, while A4 bypasses Gliwice to the south

Route descriptionEdit

Route
Number of exit, facility Kilometers   A4  E40
  (1) (0) Border crossing PL-DE Jędrzychowice
  (2) (1.8) Zgorzelec   DK 30   DK 94
Rest area(1) (7.8) Żarska Wieś, restaurant and motel eastbound, petrol station both ways
  (3) (17.9) Godzieszów   DW 296  DK 94(access through DW296)
Parking area(1) (26) Czerna; parking only
  (4) (44.6) Bolesławiec   DW 297
Rest area(2) (46.2) Kraśnik Dolny (eastbound only), restaurant, motel and petrol station
  (5) (49.8) Krzyżowa   A18 
  (6) (56) Krzywa (secondary road to Szczytnica, restaurant and petrol station)
  (7) (62) Krzywa   DK 94
 (8) (66.6) Jadwisin
  (9) (73) Chojnów   DW 324
Parking area(2) (76.6) near Strupice
 (10) (79.9) Lubiatów
  (11) (83.6) Złotoryja   DW 364
  (12) (91.9) Legnica   DK 3   S3(tender)
  (13) (97) Legnickie Pole (exit and entrance only eastbound)
 (14) (99.6) Mikołajowice
 (15) (104.7) Wądroże Wielkie
 (16) (112.1) Budziszów  
 (17) (115.9) Udanin
Rest area(3) (119.7) eastbound only; parking, restaurant, and shower facilities
 (18) (120.1) Jarosław
  (19) (120.6) Kostomłoty   DK 5 (heading to Bolków, Lubawka)
  (20) (137.4) Kąty Wrocławskie  
  (21) (147.4) Pietrzykowice   DK 35 (access through )
  (22) (150.3) Wrocław-Południe   A8   S8  
  (23) (153.1) Bielany Wrocławskie   DK 5   DK 98
Toll plaza(1) (156)
  (24) (164.3) Wyjazd 164 (no name)   (Krajków)
Parking area(3) (166)
  (25) (178.5) Wyjazd 178 (no name)   (Brzezimierz)
Rest area(4) (183.7) Witowice (restaurant)
(193.1) Entrance to Opole Voivodeship
  (26) (193.7) Wyjazd 194   DK 39 (access through ),  (Przylesie Dolne)
Parking area(4) (200.3) Jankowice Wielkie (eastbound only)
Rest area(5) (218.7) Młyńskie Stawy (motel and petrol station)
  (27) (222) Prądy   DK 46
Parking area(5) (237.2) Przysiecz
  (28) (244.1) Wyjazd 241 (Dąbrówka)   DK 45
  (29) (251.2) Wyjazd 248 (Krapkowice, Gogolin)  
Rest area Góra Św. Anny(eastbound)/Wysoka(westbound)(6) (264.2) Shower, restaurant (KFC) and petrol station
  (30) (272.1) Wyjazd 269 (Olszowa)  
  (31) (278) Szymiszów   DK 88 (Wyjazd 275)
(281) Entrance to Silesian Voivdeship
  (32) (287.2) Łany   DK 40 (Wyjazd 287)
  (33) (295.8) Kleszczów   DK 88
Rest area(7) (299.7) Rachowice (restaurant, petrol station)
  (34) (303.5) Gliwice - Ostropa  
  (35) (310.1) Gliwice - Bojków   DK 78
Toll booth(2) (311.7) Gliwice
  (36) (315.5) Gliwice - Sośnica   DK 44   A1
  (37) (320.8) Ruda Śląska - Wspólna
  (38) (324) Ruda Śląska - Wirek  
Rest area(8) (326.9) Halemba (restaurant, petrol station and shower)
  (39) (331.5) Chorzów - Batory (exit to Batorego str.)
  (40) (334.1-335.6) Katowice - Mikołowska   DK 81(through Mikołowska, Brymowska and Kościuszki str., irregular form interchange[15])
  (41) (337.2) Katowice - Francuska
  (42) (339.5) Katowice - Murckowska   DK 86
  (43) (345.8) Mysłowice
  (44) (348.7) Brzęczkowice   S1 (from here to Balice I interchange concurrency with  )
Toll booth(3) (350.6) Mysłowice
  (45) (359) Jaworzno - Jeleń 
Rest area(9) (361.2) Zastawie (westbound)/Kępnica (eastbound) (petrol station, motel, TIR, restaurant, carwash)
 (46) (364.6) Byczyna (entrance eastbound, exit westbound only), entrance to Lesser Poland Voivodeship   DK 79
 (47) (388.4) Balin
  (48) (370.6) Chrzanów   DK 79
  (49) (380.9) Rudno, exit and entrance eastbound & westbound
Rest area(10) (397.5) (petrol station, motel, restaurant, carwash)
Toll booth(4) (399.2) Kraków
  (50) (400.2) Balice I   S7 (north bypass, incomplete)
  (51) (401.7) Balice II  
  (52) (406.4) Kraków - Mirowska  
  (53) (408.1) Kraków - Tyniec
  (54) (411.6) Kraków - Sidzina   DK 44
  (55) (416.1) Zakopiańska   DK 7   S7(in faraway plans)
  (56) (418.2) Kraków - Łagiewniki
  (57) (424) Kraków - Wieliczka   DK 94
  (58) (427.3) Kraków - Bieżanów   S7
  (59) (443.5) Szarów/Targowisko   DK 75(indirect access to  DK 94)
Rest area(11) (448.3) Kłaj (restaurant and petrol station)
  (60) (457.1) Bochnia
  (61) (466.9) Brzesko (indirect access to  DK 94 through  DK 75)
  (62) (487.5) Tarnów Zachód 
  (63) (500.8) Tarnów Północ   DK 73
(516.2) Entrance to Podkarpackie Voivodeship
  (64) (530.5) Dębica Zachód
  (65) (536.9) Dębica Wschód 
  (66) (551.6) Ropczyce - Sędziszów
Rest area(12) (564.9) Bratkowice, facilities (parking and toilet); further planned
  (67) (570.3) Rzeszów Zachód   S19
  (68) (574.4) Rzeszów Północ   DK 9 
  (69) (581.2) Rzeszów Wschód   S19   DK 94   DK 97 
  (70) () Łańcut   DW 877
  (71) () Przeworsk   DW 835
  (72) (622.5) Jarosław Zachód   DK 94
  (73) (631.7) Jarosław Wschód   DW 880
  (74) (646.7) Przemyśl   DK 77
  (75) (666.3) Korczowa   DK 94
  (672.75) Border checkpoint at Polish-Ukrainian Border
  M10  E40

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Budowa autostrady A4 pod Tarnowem na finiszu
  2. ^ http://www.gddkia.gov.pl/pl/a/12401/Dwie-jezdnie-na-A4-miedzy-Brzeskiem-a-Wierzchoslawicami Dwie jezdnie na A4 między Brzeskiem a Wierzchosławicami
  3. ^ GDDKiA info on A4 w. Krzyż - w. Dębica Pustynia
  4. ^ http://www.gddkia.gov.pl/pl/a/16919/Dwoma-jezdniami-po-estakadzie-na-odcinku-A4-Tarnow-Debica
  5. ^ http://wyborcza.biz/biznes/1,100896,16842239,Znamy_date_otwarcia_odcinka_A4_Tarnow___Debica_.html
  6. ^ GDDKiA info on A4 w. Rzeszów Zachód - w. Rzeszów Centralny
  7. ^ GDDKiA info on A4 w. Dębica Pustynia - w. Rzeszów Zachód
  8. ^ GGDDKiA information page for A4 w. Rzeszów Centralny - w. Rzeszów Wschód
  9. ^ GGDDKiA information page for A4 Rzeszów Wschód - Jarosław (w. Wierzbna)
  10. ^ [1]
  11. ^ "Radio Rzeszow". Archived from the original on 2016-05-06. Retrieved 2016-05-09.
  12. ^ GGDDKiA information page for A4 Radymno - Korczowa
  13. ^ Podkarpacie: Mobilizacja na budowie A4 Radymno – Korczowa
  14. ^ Autostradą A4 do granicy - GDDKiA announcement
  15. ^ "Mapy Google". Mapy Google. Retrieved 2015-11-06.

External linksEdit