The autostrada A2 in Poland is a motorway which runs from west to east through central Poland, from the Polish-German border in Świecko/Frankfurt, where it connects to the German A12 autobahn, through Poznań and Łódź to Warsaw. The motorway is a part of the European route E30 connecting Berlin and Moscow. On 4 June 2014, the motorway received official name as Autostrada Wolności (Motorway of Freedom).[1]

Autostrada A2 shield}}

Autostrada A2
A2
  Existing sections
  Planned sections
Route information
Part of
Maintained by * GDDKiA
Length475.0 km (295.2 mi)
610 km (379 mi) planned
Major junctions
FromBundesautobahn 12 number.svg – border with Germany at Świecko
 S3-PL.svg near Świebodzin

S5-PL.svg S11-PL.svg west of Poznań
S11-PL.svg in Poznań
S5-PL.svg east of Poznań
S14-PL.svg near Zgierz (planned)
A1-PL.svg near Łódź
S2-PL.svg S8-PL.svg near Warsaw

S19-PL.svg near Międzyrzec Podlaski (planned)
ToM1-BY.svg – border with Belarus at Kukuryki, near Terespol/Brest (planned)
Location
Major citiesPoznań, Łódź, Warszawa (Warsaw – Capital city & biggest city in Poland)
Highway system
National roads in Poland

According to current plans A2 will be gradually extended eastwards from Warsaw, all the way to the Polish-Belarusian border in Terespol/Brest, where it will connect to the M1 highway.[2] The first 21 kilometres (13 mi) segment of this section is the bypass of Mińsk Mazowiecki, which opened in August 2012. The second 14.6 kilometres (9.1 mi) long segment between Mińsk Mazowiecki and Warsaw will be completed in 2020. The part between Mińsk Mazowiecki and the border (133 kilometres (83 mi)) will be completed after 2020 and the precise schedule will depend on government funding decisions.

A2 does not formally run through Warsaw, instead the eastern and western segments are to be connected by the S2 Expresway (and other roads).

Contents

History of constructionEdit

 
Tarnawa toll plaza
 
A2 near Poznań, opened in 2003
 
A2 near Poznań Komorniki interchange
 
A2 near Kleszczewo (east of Poznań), opened in 2003
 
Ticket machine at Gołuski toll plaza
 
Toll price list (section Gołuski-Tarnawa)

The first highway planned along part of this route was a Reichsautobahn initiated by Nazi Germany to connect Berlin with Poznań (Posen). The construction of this highway, accelerated after Poznań was incorporated into Germany following the Invasion of Poland in 1939, was interrupted by the war and never finished, but traces of its earthworks were clearly visible on satellite photographs for decades afterwards, especially between the border with Germany and Nowy Tomyśl. Most of these traces have now disappeared as the modern motorway was built largely following the same route. A short stretch of the uncompleted highway between the border and Rzepin was finished as a dual carriageway road after 1945, in effect forming an extension of the German A 12 highway (opened as a Reichsautobahn in the 1930s). Except for this stretch, the construction work was not continued in the decades after the war.

New plans to build the A2 motorway were seriously formulated in communist Poland in the 1970s, possibly with the goal of completing it in time for the Moscow Olympics in 1980. Because of the economic crisis which hit the country in the late 1970s and continued throughout the 1980s, only a 50 km (31 mi) section from Września to Konin was opened in the 1980s. Construction of another stretch (between Łódź and Warsaw) was started and then abandoned, leaving an interesting ruin informally named Olimpijka, which was in turn demolished around 2010 when building of the motorway resumed.

Intensive construction of the motorway started only in 2001 after the fall of communism in Poland in 1989. Out of the planned total length of 610 km (380 mi), 359 km (223 mi) have been completed. A section of about 150 km (93 mi) (Nowy TomyślPoznańWrześniaKonin) has been fully open since 2004. This section is a toll road, with the exception of a short stretch through Poznań which serves as that city's bypass (between the interchanges at Głuchowo and Kleszczewo). An additional 100 km (62 mi) section from Konin to Stryków near Łódź was opened on 26 July 2006. A short 4.8 km (3.0 mi) bypass of Stryków, consisting of a 2 km extension of the A2 and a provisional single carriageway section of future motorway A1, was opened in December 2008, to ease the heavy traffic in that town generated when the motorway reached it.

As of winter 2009/2010, the plan was to finish the whole section between the border with Germany and Warsaw by the Spring of 2012, giving the Polish capital its first motorway connection to the European motorway network in time for the Euro 2012 football championships. That ambitious goal was jeopardised due to various difficulties encountered in finalizing the construction contracts and the delays that resulted. The 90 km (56 mi) section from Stryków to Warsaw was to be built in a public-private partnership, but the negotiations between the government and private companies interested in participating collapsed in February 2009 due to disputes over financing terms.[3] It was then decided that this section of the motorway would be built using public funds alone. The new bidding process was started on 27 March,[4] and the contracts for design and construction of the road were signed on 28 September.[5] The section had been divided into 5 parts and so construction work began in 2010. The contractors were required to have the motorway open to traffic in time for Euro 2012. This goal was an ambitious one and ultimately proved challenging, given the possibility of unexpected delays during construction[6] and the fact that the Chinese consortium abandoned the project less than a year later,[7] so that new contractors had to be selected to replace it. The goal was to have this motorway stretch provisionally opened to traffic in time for Euro 2012, even if it's not fully completed, with various restrictions such as a lower speed limit to ensure safety. For a while it was not clear whether even this limited goal would be reached, but the motorway opened to traffic in June 2012 after very intensive construction work in the final few months.

In November 2011 construction of the stretch to the German border from Nowy Tomyśl had been completed. The road was opened to public traffic on 1 December. Toll plazas on this stretch of the highway weren't opened until May 2012 so use of the western section of the A2 was free of charge until then.[8]

In May 2013, Interchange with S3 (Jordanowo) was opened to traffic.[9] First stretch is between the interchange with the A2 motorway and the "Świebodzin North" interchange. In June 2013 S3 was extended further and opened to traffic to reach from the "Świebodzin South" interchange to the existing stretch of the S3 expressway at Sulechów. In July 2013 the elevated bypass of Świebodzin between the interchanges "Świebodzin North" and "Świebodzin South" fully opened to traffic thus fully extending the S3 from Szczecin to Sulechów.[10]

Motorway section Length Constructed(approximate opening date) Note
ŚwieckoNowy Tomyśl 105.9 km (65.8 mi) 2009–2011 opened 1 December 2011; toll motorway
Nowy Tomyśl – Poznań Komorniki 50.4 km (31.3 mi) 2001–2004 opened 27 October 2004; toll motorway
Poznań Komorniki – Poznań Krzesiny 13.3 km (8.3 mi) 2001–2003 opened 13 September 2003
Poznań Krzesiny – Września 37.5 km (23.3 mi) 2001–2003 opened 27 November 2003; toll motorway
Września – Golina 34.2 km (21.3 mi) 1977–1985 opened 9 October 1985; toll motorway since 20 December 2002
Golina – Konin Zachód 13.8 km (8.6 mi) 1986–1988 opened 10 November 1988
Konin Zachód – Stryków 103 km (64 mi) 2004–2006 opened 26 July 2006; toll motorway since 1 July 2011
Stryków – Łódź Północ 1.7 km (1.1 mi) 2008 opened 22 December 2008
Łódź Północ – Skierniewice 32 km (20 mi) 2010–2012 opened to traffic on 3 June 2012, fully completed in fall of 2012[11]
Skierniewice – Grodzisk Mazowiecki 41.4 km (25.7 mi) 2010–2012 opened to traffic on 6 June 2012, fully completed in fall of 2012[12]
Grodzisk Mazowiecki – Pruszków 12.6 km (7.8 mi) 2010–2012 opened on 27 May 2012[13]
Pruszków – Konotopa 4.8 km (3.0 mi) 2010–2012 opened on 22 May 2012[14]
S2 in Warsaw (to Lubelska interchange)
Lubelska-Choszczówka Stojecka 14.6 km (9.1 mi) Summer, 2020 Contracts signed in July, 2017
Choszczówka StojeckaKałuszyn 20.8 km (12.9 mi) 2009–2012 opened 29 August 2012(Mińsk Mazowiecki bypass)
Kałuszyn-Siedlce 37 km (23 mi) 2021-2023 Contract for planning signed on January 4, 2018 [15]
Siedlce-Kukuryki 96 km (60 mi) Later than 2020 Has DŚU only

Guarantee scandalEdit

After COVEC withdrew from completing its construction of the A2, Bank of China was to pay a performance guarantee to the Polish government's roads organization GDDKiA. However, with Export-Import Bank of China, they refused to pay this; only Deutsche Bank honored its obligations under the court decision.[16]

PlansEdit

The eastern section from Warsaw to the border crossing with Belarus at Kukuryki near Brest (connecting with M1), about 170 km (110 mi) in length, is still in planning stages. The decision finalizing the route of this section was announced in December 2011[17] but actual construction on the whole segment will not begin in the near future, and the schedule depends on the availability of government funding. The exception is a short (21 km (13 mi) long) section of A2 forming the bypass of Mińsk Mazowiecki which has been under construction since August 2009. It opened to traffic in August 2012.[18] The construction of the section between Warsaw and Mińsk Mazowiecki is planned to take place between 2014 and 2020.[19] The remaining part to the border will be built some time after 2020, with the section between Mińsk Mazowiecki and Siedlce likely starting first because of higher traffic density. The construction of the remaining section east of Siedlce to the border with Belarus may begin considerably later, since the traffic density along this route is low and there is no urgent need for a high capacity road.

It is worth noting that the A2 motorway doesn't actually run through Warsaw, as the inhabitants of the districts through which it was to pass have successfully blocked its construction. This outcome was somewhat unusual, since the corridor for the motorway has been reserved by the city planners since the 1970s and kept free of construction. Instead, the traffic will be rerouted through two express roads (S2 and S8), of lower standard than the originally planned motorway. Paradoxically, one of these roads (S2) will run along the originally planned motorway corridor, so the residents who protested the construction will still end up with a busy road running through their districts, possibly even more inconvenient than the original road would have been. In the most affected area, the district of Ursynów, the express road will run in a tunnel, which will be built at considerable expense.

Exit listEdit

    Frankfurt, Berlin
  (0) Frankfurt/Świecko border crossing

Stretch Świecko border crossing – interchange Świecko signed as  

  (1) Świecko  
    Services Glinec (dir. Świecko)
    Services Sosna(dir. Warszawa)
  (2) Rzepin  
  () Road toll Tarnawa
  (3) Torzym   (  toll)
    Services Walewice (dir. Świecko)
    Services Koryta (dir. Warszawa)
  (4) Interchange Jordanowo    (  toll)
  (5) Trzciel (  toll)
  (6) Nowy Tomyśl   (  toll)
  Wytomyśl (dir. Świecko) parking area
  Kozielaski (dir. Warszawa) parking area
    Services Sędzinko (dir. Świecko)
    Services Zalesie (dir. Warszawa)
  (7) Buk   (  toll)
  Dopiewiec (dir. Świecko) parking area
  Konarzewo (dir. Warszawa) parking area
  () Road toll Gołuski
  (8) Interchange Poznań – Zachód existing  ; in construction   
  (9) Interchange Poznań – Komorniki    
  Tunnel under railway line in Luboń 130 m
  (10) Poznań – Luboń  
  Lucjan Ballenstaedt's bridge over Warta river 306 m
  Bridge over railway line in Poznań
  (11) Interchange Poznań – Krzesiny    
    Services Tulce (dir. Świecko)
    Services Krzyżowniki (dir. Warszawa)
  (12) Interchange PoznańWschód   
  () Road toll Nagradowice
  Chwałszyce (dir. Świecko) parking area
  Targowa Górka (dir. Warszawa) parking area
  (13) Września  
  Sołeczno (dir. Świecko) parking area
  Gozdowo (dir. Warszawa) parking area
  Skarboszewo (dir. Świecko) parking area
  (15) Słupca   (  partially toll)
  Lądek (dir. Warszawa) parking area
  () Road toll Lądek
  (16) Sługocin  
  Bridge over Warta river 250 m
    Services Osiecza
  (17) Interchange Modła (KoninZachód) 
  (18) Konin – Wschód  
  () Road toll Żdżary
  Kuny (dir. Świecko) parking area
  Leonia (dir. Warszawa) parking area
  (19) Koło   (  toll)
  Police (dir. Świecko) parking area
  Łęka (dir. Warszawa) parking area
  Bridge over Warta river
  Sobótka (dir. Świecko) parking area
  Cichmiana (dir. Warszawa) parking area
  (20) Dąbie   (  toll)
  Kozanki (dir. Świecko) parking area
  Zaborów (dir. Warszawa) parking area
  (21) Wartkowice   (  toll)
  Chrząstów parking area
  (22) Emilia  ; planned   (  toll)
  Ciosny parking area
  (22) Zgierz   (  toll)
  () Road toll Stryków
  (23) Stryków    
  (24) Interchange Łódź-Północ   
    Services Nowostawy (dir. Świecko)
    Services Niesułków (dir. Warszawa)
  Road toll Rozdzielna (planned)
  (25) Łowicz  
    Services Parma (dir. Świecko)
    Services Polesie (dir. Warszawa)
  (26) Skierniewice  
    Services Bolimów (dir. Świecko)
    Services Mogiły (dir. Warszawa)
  (27) Wiskitki (Żyrardów)  
    Services Baranów (dir. Świecko)
    Services Baranów (dir. Warszawa)
  (28) Grodzisk Mazowiecki  
    Services Brwinów (dir. Świecko)
    Services Brwinów (dir. Warszawa)
  Road toll (planned)
  (29) Pruszków  
  (30) Interchange Konotopa   

Road will continue as   Southern Warsaw Bypass.
After bypassing Warsaw, road will continue as  

  Interchange Warszawa – Wschód    (planned)
  Parking area (planned)
  Parking area (planned)
  (32) Mińsk Mazowiecki – Arynów
  (33) Mińsk Mazowiecki – Airport  
      Rest area (under construction)
      Rest area (under construction)
  (34) Ryczołek   
  Parking area (planned)
  Parking area (planned)
  Kotuń (planned)
  Siedlce – Swoboda    (planned)
  Siedlce – Białki   (planned)
    Rest area (planned)
    Rest area (planned)
  Interchange Łukowisko   (planned)
    Rest area (planned)
    Rest area (planned)
  Biała Podlaska – Zachód (planned)
  Biała Podlaska – Wschód (planned)
  Parking area (planned)
  Parking area (planned)
  Kukuryki   (planned)
  (-) Border crossing KukurykiKazlovichy
  
Minsk, Moscow

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "A2 – "Autostradą Wolności"". prezydent.pl (in Polish). Archived from the original on 6 June 2014.
  2. ^ Official GDDKiA information page
  3. ^ Budowa autostrady A2 do stolicy znów się opóźni(in Polish)
  4. ^ "Budowa autostrady A2" (PDF). inżynieria.com. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  5. ^ www.newsweek.pl(in Polish)
  6. ^ Rząd przejmuje budowę autostrady A2 Archived 18 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine (in Polish)
  7. ^ [1]
  8. ^ "Autostrada Wielkopolska – News Drivers". Autostrada Wielkopolska. Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 25 November 2010.
  9. ^ "Węzeł Jordanowo od 27 maja otwarty".
  10. ^ "Obwodnica Świebodzina w ciągu S3 oddana do ruchu".
  11. ^ Łódzkie odcinki A-2 już otwarte !
  12. ^ A2 – czekały na nią pokolenia…
  13. ^ "Car Travel in Poland". Poland Travel Planner. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  14. ^ "Autostrada do Pruszkowa". 22 May 2012.
  15. ^ GDDKiA Warszawa press release
  16. ^ "COVEC nie zraził się porażką na A2 i z chińskimi bankami startuje do Kozienic". 20 January 2012. Retrieved 28 April 2013.
  17. ^ Official announcement from GDDKiA website
  18. ^ Autostrada gotowa, więc jej nie otworzą. "Trudny grunt"
  19. ^ Polish government planning decision

External linksEdit