500 Fifth Avenue is a 60-floor, 697-foot-tall (212 m) office building located between West 42nd and 43rd Streets in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. The skyscraper was built for businessman Walter J. Salmon Sr. from 1929 to 1931 and designed by the firm of Shreve, Lamb & Harmon in the Art Deco style.[1][2][3] It is adjacent to the Manufacturers Trust Company Building to the north and the Salmon Tower Building to the west, while Bryant Park and the New York Public Library Main Branch are located nearby to the south.

500 Fifth Avenue
500 Fifth Avenue Panorama.jpg
General information
TypeOffice
Architectural styleArt Deco
LocationNew York City, United States[1]
Coordinates40°45′14″N 73°58′53″W / 40.753836°N 73.981279°W / 40.753836; -73.981279
Construction started1929
Completed1931
OpeningMarch 3, 1931
Owner1472 Broadway, Inc.[2]
Height
Roof697 feet (212 m)[1][2]
Technical details
Floor count60
Floor area659,132 sq ft (61,235.4 m2)
Design and construction
ArchitectShreve Lamb & Harmon Associates[1][2]
DeveloperWalter J. Salmon Sr.[1]
Structural engineerMcClintic-Marshall Co.
Main contractorCharles T. Wills Inc.

The building was designated a New York City Landmark in 2010. It is the 69th tallest building in New York.

HistoryEdit

SiteEdit

Fifth Avenue between 42nd Street and Central Park South (59th Street) was relatively undeveloped through the late 19th century.[4] In the latter half of that century, mansions and other residences were constructed along the avenue. This gave way to the development of office and commercial buildings at the beginning of the 20th century.[5] By 1923, the Rider's Guide to New York City referred to the blocks of East 42nd Street between Park and Fifth Avenues as "Little Wall Street".[6] The Real Estate Record & Guide called the area "the most valuable building site on Manhattan Island north of Wall Street".[7]:3

From the 1890s to the 1910s, entrepreneur Walter J. Salmon purchased or leased several buildings along the northern side of West 42nd Street. His first acquisitions were 19 and 21 West 42nd in 1899 and 1901, respectively.[8] In 1903, he signed a 20-year lease for the lot at the northwest corner of Fifth Avenue and 42nd Street, which was occupied by the Hotel Bristol, an eight-story structure built in 1875. The terms of the lease enabled Salmon to convert the hotel to commercial and office use.[5][8] In 1905, he leased the brownstone rowhouses at 11-17 West 42nd Street and the six-story building at 27-29 West 42nd Street, and the following year, he acquired the properties at 23-25 West 42nd. When Salmon leased the remaining buildings between 3-9 West 42nd Street in 1915, he controlled 858 feet (262 m) along the northern side of the street between Fifth Avenue and 29 West 42nd.[8] His parcels totaled 50,900 square feet (4,730 m2),[8] which was considered to be the "minimum size necessary for profitable redevelopment".[9]

Salmon's company, the Midpoint Realty Company, made an agreement with the site's owners, Gerry Estates Inc., for the corner lot's redevelopment in January 1922. Salmon signed a long-term lease for both the Bristol Building and the buildings at 3-9 West 42nd Street.[7][10] In 1927, Salmon acquired a four-story residence at 508 Fifth Avenue for his corner lot development.[11] The adjacent lots at 11-27 West 42nd would become the Salmon Tower Building,[9] which was completed in 1928.[12] However, the development of the corner site was delayed because of a legal dispute between Salmon and wool merchant Morton Meinhard, who was to provide half of the money for the site's development but did not have any say in the 1922 lease.[13] The New York Supreme Court's Appellate Division ruled in June 1929 that Meinhard was entitled to a half-stake in the site.[14]

Planning and constructionEdit

In July 1929, Salmon announced his plans for the corner lot, a 58-story building at 500 Fifth Avenue, measuring 100 feet (30 m) along Fifth Avenue and 208 feet (63 m) along 42nd Street.[15] The skyscraper was estimated to cost $2.35 million and be completed in late 1930.[16] The Real Estate Record wrote that "the time appeared ripe for an improvement on this corner".[7]:8 The lot was considered the second-most-valuable undeveloped lot in Manhattan, behind 1 Wall Street.[17]

Shreve, Lamb & Harmon were selected to design the new building.[9] Because the zoning ordinances allowed higher buildings along 42nd Street than Fifth Avenue, Salmon merged the zoning lots of 500 and 508 Fifth Avenue, enabling him to construct a taller building than was usually permitted.[11] This also required a separate design for the Fifth Avenue side of the building.[18] Some 450,000 to 500,000 square feet (42,000 to 46,000 m2) of rentable office space would be provided, as well as space for banking on the second and third floors, and retail on the first floor. The plans called for numerous architectural features including setbacks and "light courts".[11][19] The New York City Department of Buildings received plans for 500 Fifth Avenue in October 1929.[11] The following month, the Bristol Building's tenants were evicted,[20] and that December the Bristol Building was demolished.[21] The demolition was complete in January 1930[22] and excavation of the foundation began the next month.[11]

 
Tower portion of the building, showing the black terracotta panels on the spandrels

Similar to the Empire State Building nine blocks south, which was being constructed simultaneously, each structural component at 500 Fifth Avenue was planned in advance.[23] According to architect Richmond Shreve—a lead associate at Shreve, Lamb & Harmon, which designed both buildings—the former's construction "required feats of organization in some respects never before attempted."[24]:205 500 Fifth Avenue was erected by general contractor Charles T. Wills Inc. and steel contractor McClintic-Marshall Co. The steel contractor started assembling the steel frame in March 1930, and using a system of derricks to expedite construction, was able to complete the steel structure by that July.[25] The brickwork for the building was completed by that September.[26] By December 1930, the building was essentially complete,[27] and 500 Fifth Avenue officially opened in March 1931.[28] The construction process employed up to 2,200 workers, and ultimately cost $4 million.[11] John Tauranac, in his book The Empire State Building: The Making of a Landmark, wrote that upon 500 Fifth's completion, "The Building Record and Guide was calling Forty-second Street and Fifth Avenue 'the best known corner in the world'."[24]:135

UseEdit

In its early years, 500 Fifth Avenue was largely overlooked, as more attention was placed upon the Empire State Building, the world's tallest building at the time.[23] Furthermore, office rental activity affected by the Wall Street Crash of 1929.[29] Salmon said in December 1930 that although he foresaw it might take a long time to fill the space at 500 Fifth Avenue, "the enterprise was undertaken with the greatest faith in the future of midtown expansion and development."[27] The 15th, 16th, and 20th floors were completely rented by May 1931.[24]:272 Rental activity continued, and by the end of the year, lessees included Electrolux, Western Universities Club, and over ten railroad companies. Other tenants included the Austrian and Japanese consulates, which had moved into the building by the mid-1930s.[29] 500 Fifth Avenue was the original transmitter site for CBS Radio's New York City FM station (W67NY, later called WCBS-FM) in 1941.[30]

The Mutual Insurance Company leased the adjacent lots at 508-514 Fifth Avenue from the Manufacturers Hanover Corporation (then known as the Manufacturers Trust Company) in 1944, and built the Manufacturers Trust Company Building on the site. The Manufacturers Trust Company subleased the lot containing 508 Fifth Avenue to Walter Salmon for 19 years. As part of the agreement, the portion of any structure built on 508 Fifth Avenue's lot could not be more than 63 feet (19 m) tall, and as a result, the Manufacturers Trust Company Building ended up only being four stories tall.[29]

The land under the building was owned separately from the building itself, and in 1955, the land was sold to Metropolitan Life Insurance, now known as MetLife.[31][32] In 1980, a Yugoslavian bank on the 30th floor was bombed, with Croatian nationalists claiming responsibility, though no one was hurt and the structure suffered minimal damage.[33] The facade was restored in the 1990s and 500 Fifth Avenue continues to be used as an office building.[32]

DesignEdit

William F. Lamb, another lead associate at Shreve, Lamb & Harmon, called 500 Fifth Avenue "a thoroughly frank expression of the requirements of an up-to-date office building."[34] 500 Fifth's design features included fast elevators, well-lit office units, and a floor plan that maximized the well-lit office space.[35] Like the Empire State Building, 500 Fifth was designed from the top down; the floor plans within the upper stories were planned first, followed by the floor plans of the lower stories and the building's base.[36]:81 Offices above the sixth floor were designed so that each unit was a maximum of 30 feet (9.1 m) away from a window or other source of natural light. The area of each floor could be between 2,150 to 18,000 square feet (200 to 1,672 m2). Office sizes ranged from the smallest units being 9 feet (2.7 m) wide to the largest units covering the entire floor; on average, there were 21 units on each floor within the base, and 9 units on each floor within the tower section.[35]

The building's primary entrance is on Fifth Avenue about 70 feet (21 m) north of 42nd Street. Storefronts are located at ground level on the eastern and southern elevations.[35] As a result of the creation of a special Fifth Avenue zoning district in 1929, new buildings on Fifth Avenue within Midtown had to include stores on their first two floors.[37] At the main entrance was an allegorical relief depicting the building's construction, which was made of limestone and carved by Edward Amateis.[34] Ornamentation depicting a pair of carved eagles is located on the 42nd Street facade.[29]

Lamb cited several factors in the "modern architectural treatment" of 500 Fifth, including the ornamentation and material usage. Bronze, limestone, and terracotta were used on the base's facade, while above the fourth floor, the exterior was made mainly of brick. The second through fourth floors contained decorated limestone piers as well as light-green spandrels ornamented with chevrons and folds. The tower above the fourth floor consisted of recessed brick spandrels with black terracotta panels, which provided "vertical accents" to the building.[34][29] The idea for the terracotta-and-brick spandrels of the tower was probably taken from the Daily News Building, where a similar spandrel design was used.[38] Little ornamentation is used above the base, except for terracotta panels with chevrons along the facade of the tower.[29]

The 1916 Zoning Resolution resulted in a structure that incorporated setbacks, resulting in the lower floors being larger than the upper floors.[36]:81 Due to the different zoning requirements on Fifth Avenue and on 42nd Street, different designs were used for each side.[18] 500 Fifth includes numerous setbacks on each side, which are complex and asymmetrical. The first setback on 42nd Street is located at a higher story than the first setback on Fifth Avenue.[35][36]:81 Namely, the Fifth Avenue side's setbacks are located at the 18th, 22nd, and 25th stories, while the 42nd Street side's setbacks are at the 23rd, 28th, and 34th stories.[32] At the time, the heights of skyscrapers in New York City were limited by the perceived economic feasibility of the upper floors.[39]:259 For a lot measuring 100 by 208 feet (30 by 63 m), which were the ground-floor dimensions of 500 Fifth Avenue, this maximum height was considered to be 59 stories including a penthouse, or roughly 697 feet (212 m).[35][36]:76

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e "500 Fifth Avenue". Emporis.com. Archived from the original on February 14, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2008.
  2. ^ a b c d "500 Fifth Avenue". SkyscraperPage.com. Archived from the original on December 17, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2008.
  3. ^ "500 Fifth Avenue". 500 Fifth Avenue. Archived from the original on February 8, 2008. Retrieved January 12, 2008.
  4. ^ Bridges, William (1811). Map of the city of New York and island of Manhattan :with explanatory remarks and references /. T&J Swords. OCLC 40023003.
  5. ^ a b Klose 2010, p. 2.
  6. ^ Rider, Fremont (1923). Rider's New York City;a guide-book for travelers, with 13 maps and 20 plans (2nd ed.). New York. p. 26.
  7. ^ a b c "58-Story Building Planned for Hotel Bristol Site". The Real Estate Record: Real estate record and builders' guide. 110 (4). July 20, 1929.
  8. ^ a b c d "SAW 42D ST. VALUE THIRTY YEARS AGO; Many Choice Properties Are Now Controlled by Walter J. Salmon". The New York Times. October 26, 1930. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  9. ^ a b c Klose 2010, p. 5.
  10. ^ "FIFTH AVENUE DEAL.; Elbridge T. Gerry Leases 42d Street Corner for Long Term". The New York Times. January 27, 1922. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Klose 2010, p. 6.
  12. ^ "RENTAL CONDITIONS IN CENTRAL ZONE; Space in New Buildings Satisfactorily Absorbed Duringthe Past Year.BRIGHT OUTLOOK FOR 1928Construction Will Be Less ThisSeason, but Big SupplyPromised in 1929". The New York Times. January 29, 1928. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  13. ^ "LEASEHOLD VALUE OF BRISTOL CORNER; Court Opinion in Salmon Case Reveals Interesting Realty Facts". The New York Times. April 14, 1929. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  14. ^ "Merchant Wins Half Interest in 5th Av. Site, One of Most Valuable properties in World". The New York Times. June 2, 1928. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  15. ^ "SKYSCRAPER TO RISE IN 5TH AV. AT 42D ST.; W.J. Salmon to Erect 58-Story Office Building at Northwest Corner, Opposite Library". The New York Times. July 15, 1929. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  16. ^ "New Fifth Avenue Skyscraper Estimated to Cost $2,350,000". The New York Times. October 24, 1929. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  17. ^ Crane, Frank W. (August 4, 1929). "MANHATTAN LAND VALUES RISE WITH SKYSCRAPERS; Prices, Amazing to Old-Timers, Are Expected to Touch Higher Peaks--Ten Sites Which Are Considered the Most Valuable and Influences That Lift Cost". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  18. ^ a b "BUILDING IN TWO ZONES.; Special Design Is Required for 500 Fifth Avenue Edifice". The New York Times. September 14, 1930. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  19. ^ "PREPARING TO RAZE OLD BRISTOL HOTEL; Fifty-eight-Story Office Building, 697 Feet in Height,Will Occupy Site". The New York Times. December 1, 1929. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  20. ^ "Bristol Building Coming Down; Tenants to Vacate Nov. 30". The New York Times. November 21, 1929. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  21. ^ "RAZING BRISTOL BUILDING.; Wreckers Are Busy Preparing Site of Salmon Office Skyscraper". The New York Times. December 3, 1929. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  22. ^ "OLD LANDMARK GONE.; Demolition Work Finished on Fifth Avenue Skyscraper Site". The New York Times. January 19, 1930. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  23. ^ a b Gray, Christopher (September 30, 2007). "A Businesslike Tower, Overshadowed by a Famous Sibling". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  24. ^ a b c Tauranac, John (2014). The Empire State Building: The Making of a Landmark. New York: Scribner. ISBN 978-0-684-19678-7.
  25. ^ "SKYSCRAPER FRAME UP.; Steel Work is Finished on 58-Story Structure at 500-Fifth Avenue". The New York Times. July 29, 1930. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  26. ^ "BRICK WORK FINISHED AT 500 FIFTH AVENUE; Rapid Progress Is Made on Office Skyscraper Without Serious Accident. Expects Gain in Queens Rentals". The New York Times. September 7, 1930. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  27. ^ a b "TALL BUILDING OPENING.; Sixty-Story Edifice at 500 Fifth Avenue Ready Next Month". The New York Times. December 14, 1930. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  28. ^ "NEW SKYSCRAPER OPENED BY SALMON; Realty and Civic Leaders Attend Ceremony at Latest Addition to Fifth Av. Monuments.MIDTOWN GROWTH IS CITEDSixty-Story Structure at NorthwestCorner of Forty-second StreetErected In Rapid Time". The New York Times. March 3, 1931. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  29. ^ a b c d e f Klose 2010, p. 8.
  30. ^ "One of New York's FM Broadcasters, CBS Station W67NY" (PDF). Radio-Craft: 404. March 1942. Retrieved October 9, 2019.
  31. ^ "LAND HERE IS SOLD SUBJECT TO LEASE; Metropolitan Life Purchases Property Under Fifth Ave. Structure -- Other Deals". The New York Times. September 15, 1955. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  32. ^ a b c Klose 2010, p. 9.
  33. ^ Kihss, Peter (March 18, 1980). "Bomb in 5th Ave. Tower Shatters Yugoslav Bank; 'Coordinated' Actions Vowed Group Denies Involvement No Injuries as a Bomb Ruins Yugoslav Office In Fifth Ave. Building 'Lifted Off My Chair'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  34. ^ a b c "DIGNITY IN HEIGHT OF TOWER BUILDING; Dark Gray Terra Cotta Accentuates Lofty size of 500Fifth Avenue Edifice". The New York Times. October 26, 1930. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  35. ^ a b c d e Klose 2010, p. 7.
  36. ^ a b c d Willis, Carol (1995). Form follows finance : skyscrapers and skylines in New York and Chicago. New York, New York: Princeton Architectural Press. ISBN 978-1-56898-044-7. OCLC 32737656.
  37. ^ Klose 2010, p. 13.
  38. ^ Robinson, C.; Bletter, R.H. (1975). Skyscraper style: art deco, New York. Oxford University Press. p. 26. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  39. ^ Shreve, R.H. (April 1930). "The Economic Design of Office Buildings". Business week. McGraw-Hill (nos. 30-42): 345–359.

Sources

External linksEdit