2nd Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

The 2nd Infantry Division was a Regular Army infantry division of the British Army, with a long history. Its existence as a permanently embodied formation dated from 1809, when it was established by Lieutenant General Sir Arthur Wellesley (later to become the Duke of Wellington), as part of the Anglo-Portuguese Army, for service in the Peninsular War. The division was raised and disbanded several times during a period of 200 years.

2nd Division
2nd Infantry Division
2nd Armoured Division
British 2nd Infantry Division.svg
ActiveRaised and disbanded numberous times between 1809 and 2012[a]
Country United Kingdom
BranchFlag of the British Army.svg British Army
EngagementsPeninsula War
Crimean War
First World War
Second World War
Insignia
Identification
symbol
Division sign for the British 2nd Division in World War 1
World War 1 Division sign.[2]

The division was associated with the north of England. The divisional insignia, the Crossed Keys of Saint Peter, were originally part of the coat of arms of the Diocese of York, and were adopted before or during the First World War. It was disbanded on 1 April 2012.

Napoleonic WarsEdit

Peninsular WarEdit

During the French Revolutionary Wars and the early stages of the Napoleonic Wars, the largest permanent organised structure within the British Army was the brigade. These consisted of two or more battalions grouped together, and were commanded by a major-general. The brigade suited the small size of the British Army, and the operations that it generally conducted. When the situation arose, larger forces were employed although they were organised on an ad hoc basis. This included multiple brigades grouped into 'lines' or 'columns', with the most senior major-general taking command. As the British Army grew in size, as well as the scope of its operations, it implemented the organisation of divisions; a single formation of two or more brigades, usually commanded by a lieutenant-general. The division concept was not new, and had been used by other European armies towards the end of the Seven Years' War (1756-1763). On 18 June 1809, Lieutenant-General Arthur Wellesley, commanding British forces in Spain and Portugal during the Peninsula War, ordered the creation of four divisions: the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th.[3]

Major-General Rowland Hill was given command of the newly formed 2nd Division, which was around 3,900 men strong. It first saw action at the Battle of Talavera (27–28 July 1809), suffering 888 casualties over two days of fighting.[4][b] The division, now 10,000 strong due to embedded Portuguese troops, was present at the Battle of Bussaco, on 27 September 1810, but did not see combat.[7] By October, it was manning redoubts in the Torres Vedra defensive line, near Alhandra. While French forces skirmished with the division's pickets, the main position was not engaged.[8] Hill, suffering from fever, was replaced by Major-General William Stewart, one of the division's brigade commanders.[9] Detached from Wellesley's main force, the division missed most of the major battles during the 1811-12 period and acquired the nickname: the "Observing Division" as a result.[10] However, the division was involved in several notable battles during this period. Stewart led the division at the Battle of Albuera, where he received criticism for the handling of the division, ignoring orders as well as tactical requests from his brigade commanders. As the division moved to take position alongside engaged Spanish forces, Stewart ordered his leading brigade to flank the engaged French. Stewart ignored a request by the brigade commander to establish their own flank guard, thus leaving themselves vulnerable. The brigade conducted the move, opened fire, and forced the French to break and retreat. Unaware, Historian Charles Oman wrote due to environmental and combat factors, 800 Polish lancers had approached. The lancers charged into the British flank, inflicting 1,248 casualties, or 75 per cent of the strength of the brigade. Total divisional losses in the battle amounted to 2,868.[11] On 28 October, 1811, the division (with attached Spanish cavalry) took part in the Battle of Arroyo dos Molinos, where they captured Arroyo dos Molinos, scattered the garrison, and took around 1,300 prisoners for the loss of 101 men.[12] On 19 May 1812, at the Battle of Almaraz, 900 men of the division entered Fort Napoleon by surprise. After a fierce closely fought battle, they forced the garrison to retreat. The fort's guns were then used to subdue the garrison of the nearby Fort Ragusa, which was then occupied securing an important river crossing over the Tagus. Around 400 French casualties were inflicted, for 189 British casualties.[13] In late 1812, while covering the retreat of coalition forces, the division failed to fully destroy a bridge. This allowed French forces to cross the Tagus faster than anticipated.[14]

The following year, on June 21, the division fought at the Battle of Vittoria forming part of the British right flank and suffered 1,110 casualties.[15] In July, the division briefly took part in the Siege of Pamplona, before fighting numerous engagements during the Battle of the Pyrenees. The most notable was the Battle of Maya. During the morning, French forces attacked to the south of the British position. This attracted Stewart's attention and he left to investigate, without leaving instructions or informing anyone where he had gone. Oman wrote Stewart "must also be given the discredit of the very inadequate arrangements that had been made for the defence" of the Maya pass. Making use of terrain, French forces advanced undetected towards the division, attacked, and overran five light infantry companies. The division counterattacked piecemeal, prior to Stewart's return in the early afternoon. He organised a withdrawal to a new position, fended off new attacks, and ended the day in a position that blocked the pass despite having lost possession of it. Despite this, Hill ordered Stewart to withdraw after dark. The fighting had cost 1,320 casualties, including Stewart who was wounded. Oman wrote that he was a "splendid fighting man if a careless and tiresome subordinate."[16] A further 516 men were lost over the rest of July and into August, during the fighting in the Pyrenees.[17][c] The division next defended the Pyrenees passes at Roncesvalles over the following months, before fighting in several engagements during the the advance into France. These included the Battle of Nivelle, a bloody engagement at Saint Pierre suffering 903 casualties, and fighting at Orthez and Aire-sur-l'Adour with relatively few casualties.[19] The division played no further major role in the campaign, which largely came to a conclusion following the capture of Toulouse on 12 April 1814. Meanwhile, the Emperor of the French Napoleon had abdicated following the capture of Paris on 31 March. With the war over, the divisions formed in the Peninsular were broken up. The troops then marched to Bordeaux, where they were either returned to the United Kingdom or were transported to North America to take part in the ongoing War of 1812.[20]

WaterlooEdit

The 2nd Division was formed on 11 April 1815, with Henry Clinton was given command. The division formed part of the 2nd Corps, under the division's old commander Rowland Hill. It consisted of one brigade of British light infantry and riflemen, one brigade of the King's German Legion, and one brigade of the recently raised Hanoverian Landwehr.[21] It fought at the Battle of Waterloo, beginning the day in reserve behind Wellington's right flank. It took part in the defeat of Napoleon's attacks later in the day, and then advanced into France as part of the Allied armies.[22]

Victoria EraEdit

Crimean WarEdit

The division formed part of the British army under Lord Raglan which landed in the Crimea and attempted to capture the port of Sebastopol. It was commanded by Lieutenant General Sir George de Lacy Evans, and fought at the battles of the Alma and Inkerman, where it suffered heavy casualties.[23]

Anglo-Egyptian WarEdit

In 1882, the division formed part of the Expeditionary Force under Lieutenant General Sir Garnet Wolseley which was sent to Egypt after a rebellion (the Urabi Revolt) threatened British control of the Suez Canal. During the subsequent 1882 Anglo-Egyptian War, the division was commanded by Major General Edward Bruce Hamley. One of its brigades was used as a garrison of Alexandria, and did not take part in the main actions of the war, but the other brigade and the divisional headquarters took part in the decisive Battle of Tel-el-Kebir.[24]

Boer WarEdit

The division was part of an Army Corps called the Natal Field Force under General Sir Redvers Buller which was sent to South Africa when the Boer War broke out in 1899. The division's commander was Lieutenant General Sir Francis Clery. The division, or parts of it, suffered defeats at the Battle of Colenso and the Battle of Spion Kop[25] before gaining victory at the Battle of the Tugela Heights during the Relief of Ladysmith. It subsequently took part in operations which drove the Boers from Natal and the eastern Transvaal.[26]

In 1902 the army was restructured, and a 2nd Infantry division was established permanently as part of the 1st Army Corps, comprising the 3rd and 4th Infantry Brigades.[27]

First World WarEdit

The division was subsequently stationed on Salisbury Plain, garrisoned at Aldershot, and designated to be part of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) which would be despatched to the continent in the case of a general European war. When the First World War broke out, in August 1914, the BEF was sent to support the French and Belgian armies. The division's commander at this point was Major General Charles Monro. The division took part in the Battle of Mons and the subsequent retreat, and, along with most of the rest of the original BEF, suffered heavy casualties in the First Battle of Ypres in November.[28]

The division served on the Western Front for the duration of the war. Although most of the division's regulars became casualties or were transferred to other formations, the division never lost its standing and reputation as a Regular Army formation. The 2nd Division fought in most the major battles on the Western Front.[29]

 
Men of No. 1 Platoon, A Company of the 10th (Service) Battalion, Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry, the divisional pioneers, breakfasting on their way to the line. Near Le Quesnoy, France, 27 October 1918.

After the war the division was part of the occupation force stationed at Cologne.[29]

Second World WarEdit

France and BelgiumEdit

Following its return from Germany, the division continued to be a regular army formation stationed in Britain. The division saw numerous changes in units and composition during the interwar period. In September 1939, shortly after the outbreak of the Second World War, it once again became part of a British Expeditionary Force (BEF), under Field Marshal Lord Gort, sent to fight alongside the French Army. Its General Officer Commanding (GOC) was Major-General Charles Loyd, who had taken command of the division earlier in the year. The division was sent to the Franco-Belgian border, arriving on 21 September 1939, where it came under command of I Corps, and was to remain there for the next few months.[30]

 
Rifle inspection for men of the 2nd Battalion, Dorset Regiment at Rumegies, France, 14 February 1940.

In May 1940, the BEF, including the 2nd Infantry Division, was driven from France during the retreat to Dunkirk, where the division (from 20 May commanded by Major-General Noel Irwin) was evacuated to England, with few casualties but losing almost all its equipment. During the retreat, two members of the division were awarded the Victoria Cross: Second Lieutenant Richard Annand of the 2nd Battalion, Durham Light Infantry and Company Sergeant Major George Gristock of the 2nd Battalion, Royal Norfolk Regiment. They were the first two of three to be awarded to members of the division throughout the war.[31]

India and BurmaEdit

The 2nd Infantry Division was re-equipped in Britain and soon brought up to strength in numbers, although, like most of the British Army after Dunkirk, pitifully short of equipment. The division was stationed in Yorkshire, serving again under I Corps control and in training to repel the expected German invasion, codenamed Operation Sea Lion.[32]

In December 1941, Japan entered the war. After British and Commonwealth forces in the Far East suffered disastrous defeats in late 1941 and early 1942, the division, under War Office control and commanded now by Major-General John Grover,[32] was sent to India, which was threatened by Japanese advances and internal disorder. For some time, the division was involved in internal security operations and training for amphibious operations. In late October 1942 the 6th Infantry Brigade was temporarily detached from the division and reorganised as an independent brigade group, complete with its own supporting units, and served in the failed Arakan Campaign, rejoining the rest of the division in India in June 1943.[33]

In 1944, the Japanese launched an invasion of India. In early April 1944 the 2nd Division was sent to join the Fourteenth Army's XXXIII Corps at Dimapur to fight its way down the road to relieve the besieged position at Kohima. Kohima was relieved on 18 April but heavy fighting continued in the disputed position until under increasing pressure from a buildup in Allied forces (2nd Division had been joined by the 7th Indian Infantry Division in early May) the Japanese, having run out of food and supplies, were forced to withdraw and the Battle of Kohima was to all intents concluded at the end of May. XXXIII Corps then tasked the 2nd Division to advance south down the road towards Imphal with the 7th Indian Division following up the retreating Japanese forces over the rough terrain to the east of the road. On 22 June the 2nd Division made contact with the 5th Indian Infantry Division advancing northwards from Imphal and the siege of Imphal was relieved. Both battles were some of the fiercest fighting of the war with Kohima labelled a miniature Stalingrad, due to the ferocity of the fighting on both sides. The epitaph carved on the memorial of the 2nd Division in the large cemetery for the Allied war dead at Kohima reads,[34]

When You Go Home, Tell Them Of Us And Say,
For Your Tomorrow, We Gave Our Today

 
Men of the 7th Battalion, Worcestershire Regiment display a Japanese flag captured on Mount Popa, 16 April 1945.

The division continued to serve as part of the Fourteenth Army, commanded by Lieutenant-General Sir William "Bill" Slim, during its offensive into Burma which resulted in another Victoria Cross for the division. Captain John Randle of the 2nd Battalion, Royal Norfolk Regiment was the recipient.[35] The division, now commanded by Major-General Cameron Nicholson (Major-General Grover had been relieved the previous July), was withdrawn to India at the end of April 1945.[36]

The division transferred to the command of HQ Allied Land Forces South East Asia on that date, moving back to the Southern Army on 7 June 1945. The 5th Brigade left the division in October 1945 (following reorganisation) to become part of the Brinjap Division within the British Commonwealth Occupation Force in Japan. The 6th Brigade (again reorganised) sailed to Singapore in December 1945. The division was disbanded in India in October 1946.[37]

Cold WarEdit

At the end of the Second World War, the United Kingdom was allocated an occupation zone in northwest Germany. It formed the British Army of the Rhine (BAOR) to administer its occupation forces. Following the creation of West Germany in 1949, the BAOR ceased being an occupation force and became part of the UK's contribution to the defence of Western Europe from the Soviet Union.[38][39] This role was reaffirmed at the 1954 London and Paris Conferences, with the promise to commit four divisions to the defence of Europe.[40] While the BAOR fluctuated in size, including the number of divisions, the 2nd Infantry Division was part of it throughout this period.[38] The division reformed in February 1947 at St. David's Barracks in Hilden, West Germany. In doing so, it absorbed the 36th Infantry Division. In 1958, the 6th Armoured Division was disbanded and its personnel were likewise absorbed into the division. In September 1959, the division moved to Tunis Barracks in Lübbecke.[41][42]

By the 1970s, the UK was in the position of having to reconcile decreasing resources with its commitments and the increased threat from the Soviet Union.[43] In 1974, following the general election, Roy Mason became Secretary of State for Defence. He authored the Mason Review, a Government white paper outlining the new defence policy. It reaffirmed the Soviet Union as the primary threat to British national security and the need to concentrate its forces in Western Europe.[44] Mason argued for proposed changes that would "maintain as far as possible the present combat capability of the Army in Europe … while reducing the overall number of men".[45] This would be achieved by disbanding headquarters units, including the elimination of "the brigade level of command" with battalions being "commanded directly by smaller-sized divisional headquarters". The overall aim was to have "fewer formation headquarters overall, and fewer but larger units".[46] These changes were to maintain the BAOR's ability to wage "a mobile and intense armoured battle" against invading Soviet forces.[47]

Historian David Isby wrote that Mason's reforms were promised "with an alleged 25 percent increase in combat power".[43] This increase was to be brought about by more efficient use of manpower, streamlining the logistical elements of the division and improving the ratio of weapons and men.[48] Historian Marc Donald DeVore argued the politically forced change coincided with BAOR doctrinal changes that had started in the 1960s. They were subsequently pioneered by the 1st Armoured Division in the early 1970s: to fight a mobile defensive battle by defending key attack routes that Soviet armoured forces would more than likely take, and then draw them into killing areas where they would suffer disproportionate losses at the hands of anti-tank guided missile equipped infantry and tanks in hull-down defensive positions. The British division would keep on moving, fighting this aggressive delaying battle from the East German border.[49] The restructure saw the BAOR increase to four divisions, each with two armoured regiments and three mechanised infantry battalions.[43] It was believed that this attritional battle, using four divisions, would allow the BAOR to resist a Soviet advance and buy enough time for one of several contingencies: a diplomatic solution to be achieved; reinforcements to arrive to allow further conventional warfare; or a threat made, warning of the use of tactical nuclear weapons.[50] On 1 September 1976, as part of these reforms, the 2nd Infantry Division was re-designated as the 2nd Armoured Division.[51]

2nd Armoured Division 1976 - 1982Edit

 
The Chieftain tank, the main battle tank of the division.

The 2nd Armoured Division was the first of the four BAOR divisions to be reorganised. After the process was completed, it was 8,600 men strong, and equipped with 132 Chieftain tanks (with 12 additional tanks in reserve). In a time of war, the division would be reinforced to a wartime strength of 14,000 men.[52] Divisional headquarters was based in Lübbecke, West Germany, and its signal regiment was in Bünde.[53][54] The 2nd Armoured Division maintained the 2nd Division's insignia, original designed during the Second World War, and used throughout the Cold War.[53][55] The division consisted of an armoured reconnaissance regiment (two squadrons equipped with FV101 Scorpions and a third squadron equipped with FV107 Scimitars); two armoured regiments each with 66 tanks in four squadrons and three mechanised infantry battalions, each with four rifle companies that were carried in FV432 armoured personnel carriers. The pre-reform organisation included pioneer and reconnaissance forces integrated within each infantry battalion. Now all reconnaissance forces were concentrated in the reconnaissance regiment, and all pioneers were allocated to the divisional engineer regiment.[52]

The divisional artillery group included a close support regiment equipped with the Abbot self-propelled artillery system and Blowpipe missiles, a man-portable air-defence system; a general support regiment of self-propelled M109 howitzers; and an anti-tank battery equipped with Swingfire anti-tank missiles. Other divisional assets included a field ambulance unit, a provost company, a transport regiment, an ordnance company, field workshop battalions, and an aviation regiment of scout helicopters.[52] The actual units that comprised the division were not fixed. The British Army rotated units through the BAOR. For example, infantry battalions would generally serve a four-year tour with the army before being rotated to another theatre; armoured units could serve up to eight years.[56] Elements of the division could also be rotated elsewhere from Germany while remaining part of the division. For example, the 2nd Armoured Division Engineer Regiment was deployed to Northern Ireland in December 1979.[57]

With the removal of the brigade level, the division was ideally able to form up to five battlegroups each based around the headquarters of the armoured regiments or infantry battalions. These groups were to be formed for a specific task and allocated the required forces needed. The reforms envisioned that the divisional commander would oversee these battlegroups, but early training found this to be impractical. To compensate, the divisional headquarters was increased to 750 men (war time strength) including two brigadiers, who would each command a flexible task force that would be formed by the GOC.[58] The 2nd Armoured Division's task forces were Task Force Charlie and Task Force Delta. The task forces would allow the GOC to tailor their forces to meet unforeseen events and better execute the killing area doctrine.[59] These task forces were not a reintroduction of a brigade command structure, and they had no logistical responsibilities. Structuring the division in this manner allowed the division to be reduced by 700 men.[58] The historian David Stone commented the system was "designed to allow the commander maximum flexibility and take precise account of the operational or tactical task to be achieved."[60]

In November 1976, the BAOR held Exercise Spearpoint 76. It was designed to test the reorganised 2nd Armoured Division, and included troops from Denmark and the United States.[61] Norman Dodd, a retired British Army officer who attended the exercise and reviewed what took place, wrote: "Exercise Spearpoint proved that the new structure of the corps is workable and an improvement on the old organization." He suggested the new structure may see problems "after some days in combat when fatigue and strain begin to take their toll" on the divisional headquarters and those in charge of the battlegroups.[62] Following the exercise, further refinements to the organisation took place into 1977, as additional armour and infantry units were transferred and brought the formation up to strength.[51] The Task Force concept lasted until the end of the decade. Stone wrote it had "not prove[d] entirely satisfactory".[60] Isby wrote brigades were reintroduced after the flaws of the new system became apparent. It was an issue exacerbated by troop deployments to Northern Ireland that had "caused some armoured and mechanized battalions to reduce their fourth squadrons or companies to cadre status."[43] The division then comprised the 4th and the 12th Armoured Brigades.[63][64]

Further reorganisationEdit

In 1981, John Nott, the Secretary of State for Defence for the government elected in 1979, authored the 1981 Defence White Paper. It, like the Mason review, aimed at balancing the British military in line with the nation's financial resources.[65] Nott's paper called for the BAOR to be restructured from four armoured divisions of two brigades to three divisions of three brigades, saving manpower and money with the loss of one division. Nott also called for a new division to be formed in the United Kingdom, which would be made up primarily of Territorial Army personnel. The new formation would reinforce the BAOR on the outbreak of war.[66]

In July 1981, the 2nd Armoured Division was chosen to be the formation that would be disbanded. It was to be reformed in the United Kingdom as the 2nd Infantry Division, and assigned to reinforce the BAOR during wartime. The new division headquarters would be based at Imphal Barracks, in York.[67] The division's assets were dispersed. For example, the 4th Armoured Brigade was transferred to the 4th Armoured Division.[63] By December 1982, the division ceased to exist.[55]

End of the Cold WarEdit

On 1 January 1983, the 2nd Infantry Division was reformed.[55] The reformed division was assigned the territorial 15th (based at Alanbrooke Barracks, Topcliffe, North Yorkshire) and 49th Infantry Brigades (based in Nottingham), and the regular army 24th Infantry Brigade (based at Catterick Garrison) and the 29th Engineer Brigade (based at Newcastle upon Tyne).[55] Each of its two TA brigades had a Fox-equipped reconnaissance regiment. These two yeomanry regiments were regarded as 'mobile anti-armour' reserves for their respective brigades in the Corps rear area.[68] Following the end of the Cold War, the division disbanded in 1992.[69]

Reformed and into the 21st CenturyEdit

 
Structure 2nd Division
 
2nd Division Headquarters, Craigiehall, in use 2000 to 2012

The 2nd Division was reformed as an administrative division – effectively a military district – from North East District and North West District on 1 April 1995.[70] The 1998 Strategic Defence Review led to a reorganisation of Land Command. The 2nd Division absorbed Scotland District and its headquarters moved to Craigiehall, near Edinburgh in April 2000.[71]

The division HQ controlled Catterick Garrison and by 2000 comprised the following Regional Brigades:[72]

Following further reshuffling, 52nd Infantry Brigade was reformed as an operational, rather than regional, brigade consisting of several light infantry battalions, and left the formation to join 3 Division on 1 April 2007.[73] 38th (Irish) Brigade came under command of the 2nd Division on 1 January 2009.[74]

The Division reported to Army Headquarters at Andover from 2010.[75] The new HQ Support Command in Aldershot began operation in January 2012 when HQ 4th Division in Aldershot disbanded.[76] HQ 2nd Division in Edinburgh and HQ 5th Division in Shrewsbury were disbanded in April 2012.[77]

Despite the closure of HQ 2nd Division in Edinburgh the Army retained a General Officer Scotland, in addition to a small number of staff, in order to maintain the level of senior representation in Scotland required to oversee the rebasing changes.[76]

General officers commandingEdit

Orders of BattleEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

Footnotes

  1. ^ 1809-1814; 1815-1818; 1853-1856; 1882; 1899-1902; 1902-1846; 1947-1976; 1976-1982; 1983-1992; ~1995-2012
  2. ^ Historian Ian Fletcher suggested the division was formed in May 1809, and fought at the Second Battle of Porto.[5] Historian Charles Oman detailed the British order of battle at Porto, and noted the entire force comprised eight brigades and no divisions. Oman stated that it was after that battle when they were formed.[6] Historian Philip Haythornthwaite stated that the divisions were formed on 18 June 1809.[3]
  3. ^ A separate 2nd Division, under the command of Major-General John Mackenzie, was operating during this period. This was part of the independent Army on the Tarragona, under General John Murrary.[18]

Citations

  1. ^ Cole p. 36
  2. ^ Chappell pps. 30, 46
  3. ^ a b Haythornthwaite 2016, The Divisional System.
  4. ^ Oman 1903, pp. 455, 511-512, 525, 531-535, 544-545, 645, 650-651.
  5. ^ Fletcher 1994, pp. 32-33.
  6. ^ Oman 1903, pp. 324ff. and 640-641.
  7. ^ Oman 1908, pp. 359-362, 387, 545, 550.
  8. ^ Oman 1908, pp. 437-442.
  9. ^ Reid 2004, p. 42.
  10. ^ Bamford 2013, p. 205.
  11. ^ Oman 1911, pp. 383-383, 399-400, 631.
  12. ^ Oman 1911, pp. 602-605.
  13. ^ Oman 1914, pp. 326-328.
  14. ^ Oman 1922, p. 99.
  15. ^ Oman 1922, pp. 400, 419, 422, 439-440, 758.
  16. ^ Oman 1922, pp. 469, 529, 626-627, 629-638.
  17. ^ Oman 1922, pp. 769-772.
  18. ^ Oman 1922, p. 762.
  19. ^ Oman 1930, pp. 118 and 167, 175-176, 227 369, 384, 553, 558.
  20. ^ Oman 1930, pp. 496 and 513.
  21. ^ Glover 2015, p. 35-46.
  22. ^ "Opposing forces and plans". Waterloo Association. Retrieved 19 October 2020.
  23. ^ Raugh, Harold E. (2004). The Victorians at War, 1815-1914: An Encyclopedia of British Military History. ABC-Clio. p. 186. ISBN 978-1576079256.
  24. ^ Maurice, J. F. (1887). The Campaign of 1882 in Egypt. Naval and Military Press. p. 151. ISBN 9781781504215.
  25. ^ Thomas Pakenham, The Boer War, p. 284
  26. ^ Creswicke, Louis (2019). South Africa and the Transvaal War, Vol. 3 from the Battle of Colenso, 15 December 1899 to Lord Roberts's advance into the free state 12 February 1900. Alpha Editions. ISBN 978-9353708153.
  27. ^ Rinaldi, p. 30
  28. ^ Smith, Ted; Spagnoly, Tony (1998). Salient Points Two: Ypres Sector, 1914–18. Pen and Sword. ISBN 978-0850526103.
  29. ^ a b "2nd Division". The Long, Long Trail. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  30. ^ Smart, p. 196
  31. ^ "No. 34928". The London Gazette (Supplement). 23 August 1940. p. 5137.
  32. ^ a b Joslen, p. 40
  33. ^ Joslen, p. 240-241
  34. ^ "When you go home, tell them of us and say, for your tomorrow". Times of India. 26 July 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  35. ^ "No. 36833". The London Gazette (Supplement). 8 December 1944. p. 5673.
  36. ^ Luto, James (2013). Fighting with the Fourteenth Army in Burma: Original War Summaries of the Battle Against Japan 1943–1945. Pen and Sword. p. 8. ISBN 978-1783030316.
  37. ^ Palmer, Rob. "2 Infantry Division (1944–45)" (PDF). britishmilitaryhistory.co.uk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 April 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
  38. ^ a b Isby 1988, p. 336.
  39. ^ Speiser 2016, p. 1.
  40. ^ Rees 2013, p. 57.
  41. ^ "St. David's Barracks". BAOR locations. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
  42. ^ "Tunis Barracks". BAOR Locations. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
  43. ^ a b c d Isby 1988, p. 332.
  44. ^ Taylor 2010, pp. 6–7.
  45. ^ Mason 1975, p. I-22.
  46. ^ Mason 1975, p. I-23.
  47. ^ Mason 1975, pp. III=8–9.
  48. ^ Dodd 1977, p. 373.
  49. ^ DeVore 2009, p. 279.
  50. ^ DeVore 2009, p. 282.
  51. ^ a b Kneen & Sutton 1996, p. 183.
  52. ^ a b c Dodd 1977, p. 374.
  53. ^ a b Lord & Watson 2003, p. 28.
  54. ^ Stone 1998, p. 225.
  55. ^ a b c d Horseman & Shaw 1983, p. 126.
  56. ^ Hansen 1970, p. 27.
  57. ^ "Baor Units (Ulster Service)". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). House of Commons. 19 December 1979. Archived from the original on 29 October 2019. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
  58. ^ a b Dodd 1977, p. 375.
  59. ^ DeVore 2009, pp. 281–282.
  60. ^ a b Stone 1998, p. 224.
  61. ^ Dodd 1977, p. 372.
  62. ^ Dodd 1977, p. 378.
  63. ^ a b Kneen & Sutton 1996, p. 185.
  64. ^ Stone 1998, p. 222.
  65. ^ Taylor 2010, p. 7.
  66. ^ Nott 1981, p. 17.
  67. ^ Blaker, Peter (1981). "1(BR) Corps, Written Answers (Commons), HC Deb 20 July 1981 vol 9 cc57-8W". House of Commons Library: Historic Hansard. Archived from the original on 11 November 2019. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
  68. ^ Sanders, T J, "Reconnaissance in the 2020s: An open letter to the author of our article in the May 1989 issue, from Brigadier T J Sanders CBE" Tank: The Journal of the Royal Tank Regiment, p. 8, (February 1990, Vol.72, No.711)
  69. ^ "2nd Division". Kohima Museum. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  70. ^ "TA Command Structure 1967–2000". Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
  71. ^ "Shots fired at Scottish Army headquarters near Edinburgh". Daily Record. 22 June 2011. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  72. ^ Heyman, Charles (2001). The British Army: a pocket guide. Pen & Sword Books. ISBN 9780850527100.
  73. ^ Dannatt, Richard (2016). Boots on the Ground: Britain and her Army since 1945. Profile Books. ISBN 978-1781253809.
  74. ^ Tanner, James (2014). The British Army since 2000 (PDF). Osprey. p. 13. ISBN 978-1782005933.
  75. ^ "New Army's HQ Land Forces base is opened in Andover". BBC News. 9 September 2010. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
  76. ^ a b First tranche of Army unit moves confirmed Defence News, 10 November 2011
  77. ^ House of Commons Library: Standard Note: SN06038

ReferencesEdit

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit