2020 United States elections
The 2020 United States elections are scheduled for Tuesday, November 3, 2020. All 435 seats in the United States House of Representatives, 35 of the 100 seats in the United States Senate, and the office of President of the United States will be contested. Thirteen state and territorial governorships, as well as numerous other state and local elections, will also be contested.
|← 2019 2020 2021 → |
Presidential election year
|Election day||November 3|
|Incumbent president||Donald Trump (Republican)|
|The electoral map for the 2020 election, based on populations from the 2010 Census|
|Seats contested||35 of 100 seats |
(33 seats of Class II + 2 special elections)
|Map of the 2020 Senate races|
(Georgia holding two Senate elections) Democratic incumbent Republican incumbent
Retiring Democratic incumbent Retiring Republican incumbent
|Seats contested||All 435 voting-members |
All six non-voting delegates
|Map of the 2020 House of Representatives elections
Democratic incumbent Republican incumbent Undetermined incumbent|
Retiring or defeated Democratic incumbent
Retiring or defeated Republican incumbent
Retiring Libertarian incumbent
|Seats contested||13 (11 states, two territories)|
|Map of the 2020 gubernatorial races
Democratic incumbent Republican incumbent|
Term-limited Democrat Retiring Republican
Defeated New Progressive Term-limited non-partisan
Both the Republican Party and the Democratic Party nominated their respective presidential tickets at party conventions held in late August. Incumbent president Donald Trump is the Republican nominee, and had few opponents in the 2020 Republican Party presidential primaries. Joe Biden is the Democratic Party's nominee after securing a majority of delegates in the 2020 Democratic Party presidential primaries. Various third party and independent candidates, including Jo Jorgensen of the Libertarian Party and Howie Hawkins of the Green Party, are also seeking the presidency.
Democrats have held a majority in the U.S. House of Representatives since the 2018 elections, while Republicans have held control of the U.S. Senate since the 2014 elections. Barring vacancies and party-switching, Democrats will enter the election with control of approximately 232 of the 435 seats in the House of Representatives,[a] while Republicans will enter the 2020 elections with control of 53 of the 100 seats in the Senate. All 33 Class 2 senators are up for election, and two states (Georgia and Arizona) are holding special elections for the Senate. The six non-voting congressional delegates from the District of Columbia and the permanently inhabited U.S. territories will also be elected.
Regularly-scheduled elections will be held in 86 of the 99 state legislative chambers, and eleven states will hold gubernatorial elections. Various other state executive and judicial elections will also occur. The outcome of these state elections will have a major impact on the redistricting cycle that will take place following the 2020 United States Census. Various referendums, tribal elections, and local elections, including numerous mayoral races, will also take place in 2020.
The U.S. presidential election of 2020 will be the 59th quadrennial U.S. presidential election. The individual who wins a majority of the presidential electoral vote (270 of the 538 electoral votes) will win election to a term lasting from January 20, 2021 to January 20, 2025. If no individual wins a majority of the electoral vote, then the United States House of Representatives will hold a contingent election to determine the winner.[b] Each presidential elector is chosen by the states, and is charged with casting one vote for president and one vote for vice president. Most states award all their electoral votes to the individual who wins a majority or plurality of that state's popular vote, although two states award electors by congressional districts. The vice president is selected in a similar manner, though a contingent election will be held in the United States Senate if no individual receives a majority of the vice presidential electoral vote.
Incumbent Republican president Donald Trump won re-nomination after facing token opposition in the 2020 Republican primaries. The Republican Party also re-nominated Vice President Mike Pence as Trump's running mate for the 2020 election. The Democratic Party, the other major party in the United States, has nominated former vice president Joe Biden for president and Senator Kamala Harris of California for vice president. Biden became the party's presumptive nominee in early April 2020 after Bernie Sanders withdrew from the 2020 Democratic Party presidential primaries. Along with Biden and Sanders, Elizabeth Warren, Michael Bloomberg, Pete Buttigieg, Amy Klobuchar, and Tulsi Gabbard all won at least one delegate in the 2020 Democratic presidential primaries.
Various third parties and independent candidates are also seeking the presidency. The respective presidential candidates of two third parties, the Libertarian Party and the Green Party, won at least one percent of the national popular vote in 2016. For the 2020 election, the Libertarian Party has nominated a ticket consisting of Jo Jorgensen and Spike Cohen, while the Green Party has nominated a ticket consisting of Howie Hawkins and Angela Nicole Walker. Other presidential candidates include Don Blankenship of the Constitution Party, Rocky De La Fuente of the Alliance Party, Gloria La Riva of the Party for Socialism and Liberation, Brian T. Carroll of the American Solidarity Party, independent candidate Brock Pierce, and rapper Kanye West, who is affiliated with the Birthday Party.
At least 35 of the 100 seats in the United States Senate will be up for election. All seats of Senate Class II will be up for election; the winners of those elections will serve six-year terms. Additionally, Arizona and Georgia will hold special elections to fill Class III Senate vacancies; the winners of those elections will serve two-year terms. Other states may also hold special elections if vacancies arise.
Republicans won control of the Senate in the 2014 Senate elections and retained that majority through the 2016 and 2018 Senate elections. Republicans currently hold 53 Senate seats, while Democrats hold 45 seats, and independents hold two seats. Both independents have caucused with the Democratic Party since joining the Senate. Barring further vacancies or party switching, 21 Republican-held seats, along with 12 Democratic-held seats, will be up for election. If they win the vice presidency, Democrats will need to achieve a net gain of at least three seats to take the majority; otherwise, they will need to achieve a net gain of at least four seats to take the majority.
House of Representatives elections
All 435 voting seats in the United States House of Representatives will be up for election; 218 seats are necessary for a majority. The winners of each race will serve a two-year term.
Democrats gained control of the House of Representatives in the 2018 elections, winning 235 seats compared to 199 seats for Republicans.[d] Due to vacancies and party-switching that have occurred since the 2018 elections, Democrats currently hold 232 seats, compared to 198 seats held by Republicans and one seat, that of Justin Amash, held by the Libertarian Party. Depending on potential future vacancies and party switching, Republicans will need a net gain of approximately twenty seats to take control of the House of Representatives.
Four special elections have been held in 2020 to replace a member who resigned or died in office during the 116th U.S. Congress:
- California's 25th congressional district: Republican Mike Garcia defeated Democrat Christy Smith to replace Democrat Katie Hill, who announced on October 27, 2019, her intent to resign in the wake of ethics concerns surrounding a relationship with a staffer. The district has an even partisan index.
- Maryland's 7th congressional district: Democrat Kweisi Mfume defeated Republican Kimberly Klacik to replace Democrat Elijah Cummings, who died in office on October 17, 2019. The district has a partisan index of D+26.
- New York's 27th congressional district: Republican Chris Jacobs defeated Democrat Nate McMurray to succeed Republican Chris Collins, who resigned from Congress on October 1, 2019, ahead of his pleading guilty to insider trading. The district has a partisan index of R+11.
- Wisconsin's 7th congressional district: Republican Tom Tiffany defeated Democrat Tricia Zunker to replace Republican Sean Duffy, who announced his resignation effective September 23, 2019, ahead of the birth of his ninth child, who was diagnosed in utero with severe medical complications. The district has a partisan index of R+7.
|Democrats Not Up||Democrats Up||PNP/R Up||Republicans Up||Republicans Not Up|
Elections will be held for the governorships of 11 U.S. states and two U.S. territories. Special elections may be held for vacancies in the other states and territories, if required by respective state and territorial constitutions. Most elections will be for four-year terms, but the governors of New Hampshire and Vermont each serve two-year terms. Barring vacancies and party switching, Republicans will be defending seven seats, while Democrats will be defending six seats.
Regularly-scheduled elections will be held in 86 of the 99 state legislative chambers in the United States; nationwide, regularly-scheduled elections will be held for 5,876 of the 7,383 legislative seats. Many legislative chambers will see all legislative seats up for election, but some legislative chambers that use staggered elections will hold elections for only a portion of the total seats in the chamber.[f] Although most states will hold regularly-scheduled elections for both legislative chambers, Alabama, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, New Jersey and Virginia will not hold state legislative elections, and Michigan will hold elections only for the lower house.[e] Nebraska, the only state that does not have a bicameral state legislature, will hold elections for half of the seats in its lone legislative chamber.
Following the 2019 elections, Democrats have 15 trifectas (control of the governor's office and both legislative chambers), Republicans have 20 trifectas, and 14 states have a divided government. Nebraska, which has an officially non-partisan legislature, is not included in this tally. Nationwide, Republicans control approximately 60 percent of the legislative chambers and 52 percent of the legislative seats.
Other state elections
In 2020, 82 state supreme court seats are up for election in 35 states. This constitutes 24 percent of all state supreme court seats in the country. Various other state courts will also hold elections in 2020. Various state executive positions are also up for election in 2020.
Referendums and ballot measures
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During 2020, voters will consider a number of referendums, initiatives, ballot measures, and state constitutional amendments covering everything from Medicaid expansion to marijuana legalization to voting rights.
- Alabama, Colorado, and Florida voters will consider constitutional amendments narrowing the right to vote in any elections by replacing language in the state constitution stating "every citizen" has the right to vote with "only a citizen."
- In Alaska, Ballot Measure 2 would replace partisan primaries with top-four open primaries and ranked choice voting general elections, among other election law changes. Massachusetts voters will also consider implementing ranked-choice voting on ballot Question 2.
- In Arizona, Proposition 207 will be on the ballot to legalize recreational marijuana.
- In California, Proposition 25, a veto referendum funded by the American Bail Coalition PAC, will decide whether to uphold SB10, which replaces cash bail with risk assessments for suspects who are detained in jail awaiting trial.
- A veto referendum in Colorado will decide whether to allow the state to resume its suspended membership in the National Popular Vote Interstate Compact or retain its membership in the Electoral College in presidential elections.
- Georgia will have two proposed constitutional amendments and one statewide referendum (HB 164, HR 1023, and HB 344). HB 164 aims to make funds collected from taxes and fees be used for their intended projects. If passed, HR 1023 will give citizens the ability to challenge the state, local and other public entities if a law is unconstitutional and gain relief from the state by allowing sovereign immunity to be waived. HB 344 will exempt affordable housing charities such as Habitat for Humanity from paying property taxes.
- Illinois voters will vote on the Illinois Fair Tax, a proposed state amendment which, if passed, that would change the state income tax system from a flat tax to a graduated income tax.
- A Maine veto referendum sought to overturn a new law which eliminates religious and philosophical exemptions from mandatory vaccinations for K-12 and college students and employees of healthcare facilities. It failed by a wide margin on the March primary ballot.
- A Maryland ballot measure would approve sports betting in the state.
- The legalization of medical marijuana will be on the ballot in Nebraska, Mississippi and South Dakota (recreational marijuana is also on the ballot in South Dakota), and a legislatively-referred ballot question in New Jersey will allow voters to decide on legalization of recreational cannabis.
- Mississippi voters will also vote up or down a new state flag.
- Missouri and Oklahoma voted in ballot initiatives to amend their state constitutions to expand Medicaid under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.
- Montana voters will vote on recreational marijuana via an initiative.
- Constitutional amendments to remove penal exceptions from state constitutions will be on the ballot in Nebraska and Utah.
- Puerto Rico will hold a non-binding referendum on statehood.
- Voters in Rhode Island will consider removing "and Providence Plantations" from the state's official name.
Impact on redistricting
Following the 2020 United States Census, the state delegations to the U.S. House of Representatives will undergo reapportionment, and both the U.S. House of Representatives and the state legislatures will undergo redistricting. In states without redistricting commissions, the legislators and governors elected between 2017 and 2020 will draw the new congressional and state legislative districts that will take effect starting with the 2022 elections. State supreme courts can also have a significant effect on redistricting, as demonstrated in states such as Pennsylvania and Virginia. Thus the 2020 elections could have a significant impact on the 2020 United States redistricting cycle. Barring court orders or mid-decade redistricting, the districts drawn in the redistricting cycle will remain in place until the next round of redistricting begins in 2030.
The U.S. territories of American Samoa and Puerto Rico are holding gubernatorial and legislative elections in 2020, while Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the U.S. Virgin Islands are holding legislative elections. Along with Washington, D.C., each territory is also holding elections for a non-voting delegate to the U.S. House of Representatives. All non-voting delegates serve two-year terms, with the exception of the Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico, a non-voting position with a four-year term. The five territories also took part in the 2020 Democratic Party presidential primaries and the 2020 Republican Party presidential primaries.
Since the beginning of 2020, various major cities have seen incumbent mayors re-elected, including Bakersfield, California (Karen Goh); Chesapeake (David West), Fairfax City (David Meyer), Fredericksburg (Mary Katherine Greenlaw), and Hampton, Virginia (Donnie Tuck); Milwaukee, Wisconsin (Tom Barrett); and Sacramento, California (Darrell Steinberg). In Norfolk, Virginia, Mayor Kenny Alexander was unopposed in seeking reelection. In Tulsa, Oklahoma, incumbent mayor G. T. Bynum earned reelection by winning an outright majority in the August primary. An open mayoral seat was won in Fresno, California, by Jerry Dyer.
Mayoral elections remain to be held in many cities, including:
- Baltimore, Maryland: Incumbent Democrat Jack Young, who was elevated to mayor following the resignation of Catherine Pugh, came in fifth in a crowded primary. City Council president Democrat Brandon Scott will face Republican Shannon Wright on November 3, 2020.
- Baton Rouge, Louisiana: Incumbent mayor-president Sharon Weston Broome is running for re-election. Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- Corpus Christi, Texas: Incumbent mayor Joe McComb is seeking re-election. Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- El Paso, Texas: Election to be held on November 3, 2020. Incumbent mayor Dee Margo is running for re-election.
- Fremont, California: Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- Gilbert, Arizona: Incumbent mayor Jenn Daniels declined to seek re-election to a second term. Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- Glendale, Arizona: Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- Honolulu, Hawaii: Two-term incumbent Democrat Kirk Caldwell is ineligible to run for reelection due to term limits. Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- Irving, Texas: Incumbent mayor Rick Stopfer is eligible to run for re-election. Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- Lubbock, Texas: Incumbent mayor Dan Pope is seeking re-election. Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- Mesa, Arizona: Incumbent mayor John Giles is seeking re-election. Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- Miami-Dade County, Florida: Miami-Dade County commissioners Daniella Levine Cava and Esteban Bovo advanced from the August 18 non-partisan primary to the runoff election on November 3, 2020.
- Phoenix, Arizona: Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- Portland, Oregon: This is a non-partisan office. One-term incumbent Ted Wheeler is eligible to run for reelection. Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- Richmond, Virginia: Incumbent Democrat Levar Stoney is running for reelection. Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- Riverside, California: Incumbent mayor Rusty Bailey declined to seek re-election. A run-off election between city councilman Andy Melendrez and school board member Patricia Lock Dawson, the top-two vote getters in the March 3 primary, will be held on November 3, 2020.
- Salt Lake County, Utah: Incumbent Democrat Jenny Wilson faces Republican Trent Staggs on November 3, 2020.
- San Diego, California: This is a non-partisan election. Incumbent Kevin Faulconer is ineligible to run for a third term due to term limits. Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- San Juan, Puerto Rico: Two-term incumbent Popular Democrat Carmen Yulín Cruz was eligible to run for reelection, but opted to run for governor. Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- Santa Ana, California: Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- Scottsdale, Arizona: Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- Stockton, California: Incumbent mayor Michael Tubbs faces Kevin Lincoln II in a run-off election on November 3, 2020.
- Virginia Beach, Virginia: Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- Winston-Salem, North Carolina: Incumbent mayor Allen Joines is seeking re-election. Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
Other elections and referendums
- One of Washington, D.C.'s shadow senators and its shadow representative, who are charged with lobbying Congress for D.C. statehood, are up for election.
- D.C. voters will also consider Initiative 81, which would make entheogens, including psilocybin mushrooms, peyote, and ayahuasca, the lowest law enforcement priority.
A number of Native American tribal governments held elections for tribal leadership in 2020. As with other elections in the country, the coronavirus pandemic disrupted many elections, delaying primaries and shifting some voting from in-person to postal.
The Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation reelected President Bernadine Burnette; the Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians reelected Tribal Chairman Aaron A. Payment; Oneida Nation of Wisconsin reelected Chairman Tehassi Hill; the Bois Forte Band of Chippewa reelected Tribal Chair Cathy Chavers; and incumbent Tribal Chief Donald (Doc) Slyter was unopposed in seeking reelection to lead the Confederated Tribes of Coos, Lower Umpqua and Siuslaw Indians. Stephanie Bryan, the first woman to serve as chair of the Poarch Band of Creek Indians, also won reelection. The Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community elected Keith Anderson tribal chairman, replacing the retiring Charlie Vig.
Kristopher Peters was elected Squaxin Island Tribe tribal council chairman, defeating incumbent Arnold Cooper, and Joseph Tali Byrd defeated long-time Quapaw Nation Business Committee Chairman John Berrey. Durell Cooper defeated incumbent Apache Tribe of Oklahoma Tribal Chairman Bobby Komardley. Walter R. Echo-Hawk was unopposed in a special election for president of the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma Business Council following the April 2020 recall of the prior president, James Whiteshirt.
Three Minnesota Chippewa Tribe bands had candidates win more than 50% of the votes in June primaries, eliminating the need for a general election: Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe incumbent tribal chair Faron Jackson Sr., White Earth Nation incumbent chief executive Michael Fairbanks, and, on the Grand Portage Indian Reservation, challenger Bobby Deschampe, who defeated incumbent tribal chair Beth Drost.
Scheduled elections include:
- Crow Tribe of Montana: November 7, 2020
- Oglala Lakota Tribe: November 2020
- United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians: November 2, 2020.
- In March, the Oglala Lakota Tribe approved a referendum allowing medical and recreational marijuana while also opposing a referendum allowing alcohol sales at the Prairie Wind Casino on the Pine Ridge Reservation.
- In July, Oneida Nation of Wisconsin voters approved a referendum supporting a long-range Oneida language initiative.
Impact of COVID-19 pandemic
Starting in March 2020, elections across the United States were delayed and disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. As of March 24, 2020[update], at least 10 states and territories — Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Ohio, Puerto Rico, and Rhode Island — had delayed presidential primaries. In addition, Alabama delayed the Republican primary Senatorial run-off and North Carolina and Mississippi delayed Republican primary run-off for congressional seats. Iowa, Missouri, South Carolina, and Texas all delayed municipal elections, and in New York City the special election for Queens borough president was cancelled.
To help enforce social distancing, many states looked to expand absentee and vote-by-mail options for 2020 primary elections and the November general elections. Several elections, including Democratic primaries in Alaska and Hawaiʻi, as well as the Maryland 7th congressional district special election, were conducted entirely with mail-in ballots only.
Beyond the disruption to traditional campaign events, the pandemic has the potential to disrupt the party conventions. On June 24, 2020, the Democratic National Committee (DNC) announced that it planned to conduct all of its official business at the Democratic National Convention remotely. Delegates were concerned about the spread of COVID-19 if thousands of delegates attended in person in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Public perceptions and analysis
Historian Timothy Snyder, an expert on authoritarianism, said that "it's important not to talk about this as just an election. It's an election surrounded by the authoritarian language of a coup d'etat. [...] [Trump] seems pretty sure he won't win the election, [but] he doesn't want to leave office." According to Snyder, in order to overcome Trump's "authoritarian's instinct", the opposition "has to win the election and it has to win the aftermath of the election."
As of February 2020, only 59% of Americans had confidence in the "honesty of U.S. elections". As of September 2020, 49% of college students said that the elections won't be "fair and open", 55% that "it will not be administered well", and 81% that "special interest groups have more influence over election outcomes than voters".
Table of state, territorial, and federal results
This table shows the partisan results of president, congressional, gubernatorial, and state legislative races held in each state and territory in 2020. Note that not all states and territories hold gubernatorial, state legislative, and U.S. Senate elections in 2018. The five territories and Washington, D.C., do not elect members of the U.S. Senate, and the territories do not take part in presidential elections; instead they each elect one non-voting member of the House. Nebraska's unicameral legislature and the governorship and legislature of American Samoa are officially non-partisan. In the table, offices/legislatures that are not up for election in 2020 are already filled in for the "after 2020 elections" section, although vacancies or party switching could potentially lead to a flip in partisan control.
|Subdivision and PVI||Before 2020 elections||After 2020 elections|
|Subdivision||PVI||Governor||State leg.||U.S. Senate||U.S. House||Pres.[g]||Governor||State leg.||U.S. Senate||U.S. House|
|Maine||D+3||Dem||Dem||Split R/I[h]||Dem 2–0||Dem|
|New Hampshire||Even||Rep||Dem||Dem||Dem 2–0|
|New Jersey||D+7||Dem||Dem||Dem||Dem 10–2||Dem||Dem|
|New Mexico||D+3||Dem||Dem||Dem||Dem 3–0||Dem|
|New York||D+11||Dem||Dem||Dem||Dem 21–6||Dem||Dem|
|North Carolina||R+3||Dem||Rep||Rep||Rep 9–3|
|North Dakota||R+17||Rep||Rep||Rep||Rep 1–0||Rep|
|Rhode Island||D+10||Dem||Dem||Dem||Dem 2–0||Dem|
|South Carolina||R+8||Rep||Rep||Rep||Rep 5–2||Rep|
|South Dakota||R+14||Rep||Rep||Rep||Rep 1–0||Rep|
|Vermont||D+15||Rep||Dem||Split D/I[i]||Dem 1–0||Split D/I[i]|
|West Virginia||R+20||Rep||Rep||Split||Rep 3–0|
|United States||Even||Rep 26–24||Rep 29–19||Rep 53–47[j]||Dem 232–198|
|N. Mariana Islands||Rep||Rep||Ind[m]||Rep|
|U.S. Virgin Islands||Dem||Dem||Dem||Dem|
|Subdivision||PVI||Governor||State leg.||U.S. Senate||U.S. House||President||Governor||State leg.||U.S. Senate||U.S. House|
|Subdivision and PVI||Before 2020 elections||After 2020 elections|
- The exact number of Democratic seats will depend on the results of vacancies and special elections that occur prior to November 2020.
- In a contingent election, the House of Representatives can choose from the three candidates who received the most electoral votes. Each state delegation of the House of Representatives receives one vote. For example, the state delegation of Alabama (consisting of seven representatives) and the state delegation of Alaska (consisting of one representative) each collectively receive one vote.
- 2 Independents not up
- The results of one 2018 race, the 2018 North Carolina's 9th congressional district election, were declared void due to voting irregularities.
- Some or all of the legislative chambers not holding regularly-scheduled elections in 2020 may nonetheless hold special elections in 2020.
- The upper houses of Alaska, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Hawaii, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming will hold elections for half of the seats in the chamber. The North Dakota House of Representatives is the only lower house in which only half of the seats are up for election. The Illinois Senate will hold elections for one-third of the seats in the chamber.
- This column reflects the individual who won a plurality of the state's popular vote in the 2020 presidential election.
- One of Maine's senators, Susan Collins, is a Republican. The other senator from Maine, Angus King, is an independent who has caucused with the Democrats since taking office in 2013.
- One of Vermont's senators, Patrick Leahy, is a Democrat. The other senator from Vermont, Bernie Sanders, was elected as an independent and has caucused with the Democrats since taking office in 2007.
- The Democratic Senate caucus currently consists of 45 Democrats and two independents.
- Washington, D.C., does not elect a governor or state legislature, but it does elect a mayor and a city council.
- Although elections for governor of American Samoa are non-partisan, Governor Lolo Matalasi Moliga has affiliated with the Democratic Party at the national level since re-election in 2016.
- The Northern Mariana Islands' delegate to Congress, Gregorio Sablan, was elected as an Independent and has caucused with the Democrats since taking office in 2009.
- Puerto Rican Governor Wanda Vázquez Garced, who became governor after Pedro Pierluisi's succession of Ricardo Rosselló was deemed unconstitutional, is as a member of the Puerto Rican New Progressive Party, but affiliates with the Republican Party at the national level.
- Puerto Rico's Resident Commissioner, Jenniffer González, was elected as a member of the New Progressive Party and has caucused with the Republicans since taking office in 2017.
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- Maggie Astor (September 25, 2020), "'A Failed System': What It's Like to Vote With a Disability During a Pandemic", New York Times
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- Stuart A. Thompson (October 19, 2020), "How Could Your Ballot Be Rejected? Let Us Count the Ways", New York Times,
Pay attention to these five things when you vote
- "State Elections Legislation Database", Ncsl.org, Washington, D.C.: National Conference of State Legislatures,
State legislation related to the administration of elections introduced in 2011 through this year, 2020
- Government Documents Round Table of the American Library Association, Voting & Elections Toolkits,
Reference guides for each state
- Michael P. McDonald, "2020 General Election Early Vote Statistics", U.S. Elections Project,
Detailed state statistics