1 (New York City Subway service)
The 1 Broadway–Seventh Avenue Local is a rapid transit service in the A Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or "bullet", is colored red, since it uses the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line for its entire route.
The modern 1 train has always run up to Van Cortlandt Park in the Bronx, but its route below 96th Street has varied through the years. Until 1959, there were two main service patterns south of 96th Street: a local service to South Ferry and an express service to Brooklyn. From 1989 to 2005, the 1 ran in a skip-stop service pattern during rush hours, with the 9 providing the complementary skip-stop service on the same route. The 1 and 9 trains were rerouted after the September 11 attacks in 2001; although they had mostly resumed their normal route by 2002, WTC Cortlandt did not reopen until 2018.
When the New York subway began operation between 1904 and 1908, one of the main service patterns was the West Side Branch, which the modern 1 train uses. Trains ran from Lower Manhattan to Van Cortlandt Park via what is now the IRT Lexington Avenue Line, 42nd Street Shuttle, and IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line. There was both local and express service with express trains using the express tracks south of 96th Street. Some express trains ran to Atlantic Avenue in Brooklyn via the Joralemon Street Tunnel during rush hours while all other trains turned around at City Hall or the South Ferry outer loop.
On June 3, 1917, the first portion of the Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line south of Times Square–42nd Street (to 34th Street–Penn Station) opened. A separate shuttle service between Times Square and 34th Street was placed into service as well. On July 1, 1918, this shuttle was extended south to South Ferry, with a shorter shuttle on the Brooklyn branch between Chambers Street and Wall Street. Finally, the new "H" system was implemented on August 1, 1918, joining the two-halves of the Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line and sending all West Side trains south from Times Square.
As of 1934, all 1 Express trains were running from 242nd Street to New Lots Avenue weekdays and Saturdays during the day, alternating between New Lots and Flatbush Avenues evenings and Sunday afternoons, and were split at Brooklyn Museum on Sunday morning with the south half going to New Lots Avenue and the north half to Flatbush Avenue. All 1 Local trains ran from 137th Street (extended to Dyckman Street during rush hours) to South Ferry days and evenings, and 242nd Street to between New Lots and Flatbush Avenues late nights. No trains operated for late night service.
On September 5, 1937, the practice of splitting Sunday morning trains at Brooklyn Museum was discontinued, with the alternate trains going to New Lots Avenue or Flatbush Avenue. Trains were cut from being 10-car trains to 7-car trains. On July 1, 1938, all evening and Sunday trains were rerouted to New Lots Avenue. By 1945, all 1 Local peak period trains were cut back from Dyckman Street to 137th Street.
Beginning on May 10, 1946, all 1 trains in Brooklyn were made express during late nights, running on 12-minute headways. Previously all 1 trains ran local from 12:30 to 5:30 am and they alternated between Flatbush and New Lots Avenues. On December 20, 1946, all late night trains were routed to Flatbush Avenue, while Sunday service still alternated between Flatbush and New Lots Avenues. On June 12, 1949, 137th Street to South Ferry Sunday local trains were discontinued, but were resumed on March 5, 1950, at which time Sunday service was also rerouted to New Lots Avenue. On March 15, 1954, weekend 137th Street to South Ferry local trains were once again discontinued, and simultaneously weekend Brooklyn trains were rerouted to Flatbush Avenue.
An attempt was made to extend express service further north on January 14, 1955, when alternate rush hour trains ran express between 137th and 96th Streets in the peak direction. This proved unsuccessful, and ended on June 28, 1956. Meanwhile, in Brooklyn, weekday trains were rerouted to Flatbush Avenue and evening 137th Street to South Ferry local trains were discontinued.
West Side improvementEdit
Under a $100,000,000 rebuilding program, increased and lengthened service was implemented during peak hours on the 1 train. Switching north of 96th Street became restricted to General Orders. On February 6, 1959, 1 trains began to run between 242nd Street and South Ferry all times. Trains began to be branded as Hi-Speed Locals, being as fast as the old express service with new R21s and R22s on the route. During rush hours in the peak direction, alternate trains from 242nd Street only stopped at 168th Street while running express from Dyckman to 137th Streets in the direction of heavy traffic. The bypassed stations were served by locals originating from Dyckman Street.
PM rush local/express service was discontinued on February 2, 1959. Morning rush hour express service was revised on January 8, 1962, with express trains stopping at 191st Street and 181st Street, and skipping 215th Street and 207th Street. This express service was discontinued on May 24, 1976, after which all 1 trains began to make all stops.
Skip stop, 9/11, and recent changesEdit
In April 1988, the New York City Transit Authority (NYCTA) unveiled plans to speed up service on the Broadway-Seventh Avenue Line through the implementation of skip-stop service. As soon as the plan was announced, some local officials were opposed to the change. Initially, skip-stop service would have been operated north of 116th Street, with 1 trains skipping 125th Street, 157th Street, 207th Street, and 225th Street, and 9 trains skipping 145th Street, 181st Street, Dyckman Street, 215th Street and 238th Street. As part of the study that resulted in the skip-stop plan, the NYCTA studied using the center track for express service, but settled on skip-stop service because the center track does not extend for the whole line. Most passengers would not have to wait longer for a train because, previously, a third of 1 trains had terminated at 137th Street. The previous headway for stations north of there was 10 minutes. At skip-stop stations, the maximum wait was to be 10 minutes, and would be 5 minutes at all-stop stations. Skip-stop trains would not speed through stations, instead passing through skipped stops at 15 mph (24 km/h), the maximum allowed per NYCTA rules.
On July 1988, it was announced that 1/9 skip-stop service would begin on August 29, 1988. Skip-stop service was expected to speed up travel times for almost half of riders north of 96th Street. In August 1988, the NYCTA postponed plans for 1/9 skip-stop service due to public opposition. NYCTA officials recognized that they did not do a good job informing the community, and indicated that they planned to continue to look into it. Plans to implement skip-stop service on the IRT Pelham Line (6 and <6> trains), which were contingent on the success of 1/9 skip-stop, were indefinitely postponed. In September 1988, the MTA Board formally voted to defer implementation of 1/9 skip-stop service for these reasons. NYCTA planned to initiate outreach in January 1989 and implement the change at some point later that year. In October 1988, the NYCTA informed local communities that it planned to implement skip-stop the following spring. Residents of Inwood and Washington Heights were particularly opposed to the change.
In March 1989, the NYCTA stated that there wasn't a set date for the implementation of the plan, with service possibly starting as late as the fall. To convince local communities, it set up meetings with residents and distributed leaflets advertising the change. In attempt to win their favor, they changed the name of the service from skip-stop to Express service.
A public hearing on the NYCTA's plan for skip-stop service was held on June 27, 1989. The goals of skip-stop service were to extend all trips to 242nd Street, to provide faster travel times for a majority of riders, and to improve service reliability through evenly loaded and spaced trains. During 1987 and 1988 analysis was conducted to determine various options for express service along the 1, including using the center express track. As part of the plan, express service was to operate weekdays between 6:30 a.m. and 7 p.m.. Trips that ended at 137th Street were extended to 242nd Street, which eliminated the need for a significant reduction in service levels at local stops. The 125th Street station, which is located south of 137th Street, would have experienced a reduction in service. The location of all-stop stations and skip-stop stations was done to evenly distribute passengers between the 1 and the 9, and to accommodate reverse commuting patterns. Stops with ridership greater than 8,000 daily passengers were designated all-stop stations, while less patronized stops were served by either 1 or 9 trains. One change was made from the 1988 plan–due to community input 181st Street was added as an all-stop station. Express service was expected to save up to 2.5 minutes of travel time, with an additional 2.5 minute reduction in waiting time at all-stop stations. This would save a minimum of six minutes, and a maximum of nine minutes or a 19% travel time reduction. Running express service via the center track was dismissed since it was not designed for express service. The track south of 145th Street is not long enough to allow an express train to pass a local, resulting in merging delays at 103rd Street which would eliminate any time saved. In addition, the busiest stops on the route north of 96th Street would be bypassed without any time savings. Extending all-local service to 242nd Street or adding additional trains were dismissed since they would require additional subway cars, which were not available at the time.
On July 28, 1989, the MTA Board approved a revised 1/9 skip-stop plan unanimously, with the plan scheduled to take effect on August 21, 1989. Unlike the original plan, 1 trains would skip 145th Street, 191st Street, 207th Street and 225th Street, while 9 trains would skip 157th Street, Dyckman Street, 215th Street and 238th Street.
Beginning at 6:30 AM on Monday, August 21, 1989, the services were coordinated as the 1/9 and both ran between Van Cortlandt Park–242nd Street and South Ferry. The plan was to have skip-stop service begin north of 116th Street–Columbia University, but due to objections, most notably that riders did not want 125th Street to be a skip-stop station, skip-stop service was only implemented north of 137th Street–City College between the hours of 6:30 am and 7:00 pm weekdays.
On August 21, 1989, the 1/9 weekday skip-stop service started. The plan was to have skip-stop service begin north of 116th Street–Columbia University, but due to criticism, most notably that riders did not want 125th Street to be a skip-stop station, skip-stop service operated north of 137th Street–City College between the hours of 6:30 am and 7:00 pm. All 1 trains skipped Marble Hill–225th, 207th, 191st and 145th Streets, while all 9 trains skipped 238th, 215th, Dyckman and 157th Streets. On September 4, 1994, midday skip-stop service was discontinued, and 191st Street became a common station for skip-stop service.
After the September 11 attacks, 1 trains had to be rerouted since the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line ran directly under the World Trade Center site and was heavily damaged in the collapse of the Twin Towers. It initially ran as a shuttle alongside the 2 and 3 trains to Times Square, due to debris that fell on the tracks south of Pennsylvania Station. When that was cleared by September 17, it ran only between 242nd Street and 14th Street, making local stops north of and express stops south of 96th Street. Local service was replaced by the 2 and 3 trains, running express from Canal Street to Fulton Street due to debris covering the stops between them. The skip-stop service with the 9 train was suspended for the duration of the 9/11 emergency service plan. On September 19, after a few switching delays at 96th Street, service was changed. 1 trains made all stops from 242nd Street to New Lots Avenue via the Clark Street Tunnel and IRT Eastern Parkway Line, to replace 3 trains (which terminated at 14th Street) at all times. All 1 trains continued running express with the 2 between the aforementioned streets until October 1, when it terminated at Chambers Street in Manhattan overnight.
On September 15, 2002, 1 trains returned to the South Ferry Loop and 9 skip-stop service was reinstated. However, Cortlandt Street, which was directly underneath the World Trade Center, was demolished as part of the clean-up and was rebuilt as part of the World Trade Center Transportation Hub until September 8, 2018, when it reopened as WTC Cortlandt.
On April 27, 2004, it was announced that New York City Transit was considering eliminating 9 and skip-stop service due to long wait times, and as a result of a decrease in the number of riders benefiting. The MTA estimated that eliminating skip-stop service only added 21⁄2 to 3 minutes of travel time for passengers at the northernmost stations at 242nd Street and 238th Street, while many passengers would see trains frequencies double, resulting in decreased overall travel time because of less time waiting for trains. It planned on making a decision in the summer, and approved the change on January 11, 2005. The 9 train was discontinued on May 27, 2005 and the 1 now makes all stops on the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line.
On March 16, 2009, the new South Ferry station opened, replacing the original loop station. However, Hurricane Sandy flooded the station, requiring it to be shut down for repairs. Rector Street served as a temporary terminal for the 1 until April 4, 2013, when the 1 returned to the reopened loop station, also serving as a temporary terminal until the new South Ferry Station reopened on June 27, 2017.
The 1 uses the following lines with the same service pattern at all times.
|IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line||Van Cortlandt Park–242nd Street||South Ferry||local|
The 1 runs on the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line in its entirety.
|Station service legend|
|Stops all times|
|Stops all times except late nights|
|Stops late nights only|
|Stops weekdays only|
|Stops weekdays in the peak direction only|
|Time period details|
|Station is compliant with the Americans with Disabilities Act|
|↑||Station is compliant with the Americans with Disabilities Act|
in the indicated direction only
|Elevator access to mezzanine only|
|Stations||Subway transfers||Connections and notes|
|Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line|
|Van Cortlandt Park–242nd Street|
|238th Street||Northern terminal for some southbound rush hour trains[a]|
|Marble Hill–225th Street||Metro-North Hudson Line at Marble Hill|
|215th Street||Northern terminal for some northbound a.m. rush hour trains[b]|
Out-of-system transfers with MetroCard:
A at Inwood–207th Street
|207th Street||Bx12 Select Bus Service|
Out-of-system transfers with MetroCard:
A at Inwood–207th Street
|Dyckman Street||↓||Station is ADA-accessible in the southbound direction only.|
|181st Street||George Washington Bridge Bus Terminal|
|168th Street||A C (IND Eighth Avenue Line)||Station is closed for elevator maintenance until early 2020.|
|157th Street||Bx6 Select Bus Service|
|137th Street–City College||Northern terminal for some a.m. rush hour trains|
|116th Street–Columbia University||M60 Select Bus Service to LaGuardia Airport|
|Cathedral Parkway–110th Street|
|96th Street||2 3|
|86th Street||2||M86 Select Bus Service|
|79th Street||2||M79 Select Bus Service|
|72nd Street||2 3|
|66th Street–Lincoln Center||2|
|59th Street–Columbus Circle||2
A B C D (IND Eighth Avenue Line)
|Times Square–42nd Street||2 3
7 <7> (IRT Flushing Line)
A C E (IND Eighth Avenue Line at 42nd Street–Port Authority Bus Terminal)
N Q R W (BMT Broadway Line)
S (42nd Street Shuttle)
|Port Authority Bus Terminal|
M34A Select Bus Service
|34th Street–Penn Station||2 3||M34 / M34A Select Bus Service|
Amtrak, LIRR, and NJ Transit at Pennsylvania Station
|23rd Street||2||M23 Select Bus Service|
|14th Street||2 3
F <F> M (IND Sixth Avenue Line at 14th Street)
L (BMT Canarsie Line at Sixth Avenue)
|PATH at 14th Street|
M14A/D Select Bus Service
|Christopher Street–Sheridan Square||2||PATH at Christopher Street|
|Chambers Street||2 3|
|WTC Cortlandt||PATH at World Trade Center|
|South Ferry||N R W (BMT Broadway Line)||M15 Select Bus Service|
Staten Island Ferry at Whitehall Terminal
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