The 1994 Asian Games (Japanese: 1994年アジア競技大会, 1994-nen Ajia kyōgi taikai), also known as the XII Asiad and the 12th Asian Games, were held from October 2 to 16, 1994, in Hiroshima, Japan. The main theme of this edition was to promote peace and harmony among Asian nations. It was emphasized by the host because the venue was the site of the first atomic bomb attack 49 years earlier. Due to the 1991 Gulf War, Iraq was suspended from the games.[1][2]

XII Asian Games
12th asiad.png
Host cityHiroshima, Japan
MottoAsian Harmony
Nations participating42
Athletes participating6,828
Events338 in 34 sports
Opening ceremony2 October
Closing ceremony16 October
Officially opened byAkihito
Emperor of Japan
Officially closed byAhmad Al-Fahad Al-Sabah
President of the Olympic Council of Asia
Torch lighterAki Ichijo
Yasunori Uchitomi
Main venueHiroshima Park Main Stadium
Beijing 1990 Bangkok 1998  >

There were a total number of 6,828 athletes and officials involved, from 42 countries, with a total number of 34 events. Debut sports at this edition of the Asiad were baseball, karate and modern pentathlon.[1]

Contents

Bidding processEdit

In 1983, two cities in Asia demonstrated interest to host the 1990 Asian Games, one was Beijing in the People's Republic of China and the other was Hiroshima in Japan.The two appeared before the Olympic Council of Asia, during a meeting of the same, the following year in Seoul, that also served as a previous meeting to evaluate the preparations of the city for the next Asian Games and also for the 1988 Summer Olympics. Beijing eventually won the right to host the 1990 edition, while Hiroshima, when presenting an excellent technical level application, was ratified as the venue of the 1994 Games.[3]

34 votes were needed for selection.

1990 Asian Games bidding result
City Country Votes
Beijing   China 44
Hiroshima   Japan 23

Development and preparationEdit

VenuesEdit

 
 
Hiroshima
 
Yamaguchi
Host cities of the 1994 Asian Games
Hiroshima
Hiroshima Big Arch
  • Main Stadium - Opening and closing ceremonies, Athletics, Football (finals)
  • Regional Park Stadium Field 1 - Football (Group stage)
  • Regional Park Stadium Field 2 - Hockey
  • Tennis court - Tennis
Hiroshima Institute of Technology
  • Tsuru Memorial Center - Badminton
  • Equestrian ground - Equestrian, Modern pentathlon (Equestrian)
Others
  • Hiroshima Municipal Stadium - Baseball
  • Hiroshima Sogo Ground Baseball Park - Baseball
  • Hiroshima Velodrome - Cycling (Track)
  • Hiroshima Sun Plaza - Gymnastics, Judo
  • Hiroshima Big Wave Pool - Aquatics, Modern pentathlon (Swimming)
  • Hiroshima Shudo University - Softball, Kabaddi
  • Hiroshima University of Economics - Basketball
  • Hiroshima Prefectural Sports Center - Gymnastics, Volleyball
  • Naka Ward Sports Center - Boxing
  • Higashi To Ward Sports Center - Handball
  • Aki Ward Sports Center - Karate, Taekwondo, Wushu
  • Saeki Ward Sports Center - Sepak takraw, Weightlifting
  • Asakita Ward Sports Center - Table tennis
  • Higashi Stadium East Hiroshima Park - Wrestling
  • Seibu Kyuryo Toshi Clay Shooting Range - Shooting
  • Hiroden bowl - Bowling
  • Hiroshima Kanon Marina - Sailing
  • Central Tennis Stadium - Soft tennis
  • Fukuyama Ashida River - Rowing
  • Senogawa Park - Archery
  • Otake Stadium - Basketball
  • Kure Nikoh Baseball Stadium - Baseball
  • Haji Dam - Canoeing
  • Tsutsuga Rifle Shooting Range - Shooting, Modern pentathlon (Shooting)
  • Hiroshima Country Club - Golf
  • Municipal central forest park - Cycling (Individual time trial)
  • Mihara Region Plaza - Fencing, Modern Pentathlon (Fencing, Running)
  • Hiroshima Stadium - Football (Group Stage)
  • Miyoshi Athletic Stadium - Football (Group Stage)
  • Bingo Athletic Stadium - Football (Group stage)
  • Fukuyama Takegahana Stadium - Football (Women)
Yamaguchi

MarketingEdit

Edit

The emblem of the games is an abstract image of a dove, symbol of peace, which resembles the letter 'H' initial as in the host city name Hiroshima, reflecting Hiroshima's desire for peace. The OCA emblem is the symbol of Asian Games as a whole which resembles athlete in motion.[4]

MascotEdit

 
Official mascots

The official mascot of the XII Asiad is a pair of white doves. Poppo and Cuccu, male and female respectively, represent peace and harmony - the main theme of this edition of the Asian Games.[2] They were designed by well-known manga artist and character designer Susumu Matsushita.

The gamesEdit

Participating nationsEdit

National Olympic Committees (NOCs) are named according to their official IOC designations and arranged according to their official IOC country codes in 1994.[1]

SportsEdit

CalendarEdit

 OC  Opening ceremony     Event competitions  1  Gold medal events  CC  Closing ceremony
October 1994 1st
Sat
2nd
Sun
3rd
Mon
4th
Tue
5th
Wed
6th
Thu
7th
Fri
8th
Sat
9th
Sun
10th
Mon
11th
Tue
12th
Wed
13th
Thu
14th
Fri
15th
Sat
16th
Sun
Events
  Archery 1 1 2 4
  Athletics 2 4 7 3 10 9 8 43
  Badminton 2 5 7
  Baseball 1 1
  Basketball 1 1 2
  Bowling 2 2 2 4 2 12
  Boxing 12 12
  Canoeing 7 6 13
  Cycling – Road 1 2 3
  Cycling – Track 2 2 3 7
  Diving 2 2 4
  Equestrian 1 1 1 1 4
  Fencing 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8
  Field hockey 1 1 2
  Football 1 1 2
  Golf 4 4
  Gymnastics – Artistic 1 1 2 10 14
  Gymnastics – Rhythmic 1 1 2
  Handball 1 1 2
  Judo 4 4 4 4 16
  Kabaddi 1 1
  Karate 4 4 3 11
  Modern pentathlon 2 2
  Rowing 12 12
  Sailing 7 7
  Sepaktakraw 1 1
  Shooting 4 6 4 2 4 4 6 4 34
  Soft tennis 2 2 4
  Softball 1 1
  Swimming 4 5 5 5 6 6 31
  Synchronized swimming 2 2
  Table tennis 1 1 3 2 7
  Taekwondo 4 4 8
  Tennis 1 1 5 7
  Volleyball 1 1 2
  Water polo 1 1
  Weightlifting 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 19
  Wrestling 5 5 5 5 20
  Wushu 1 2 3 6
Daily medal events 14 16 22 28 17 23 42 35 22 17 36 32 24 10 338
Ceremonies OC CC
October 1994 1st
Sat
2nd
Sun
3rd
Mon
4th
Tue
5th
Wed
6th
Thu
7th
Fri
8th
Sat
9th
Sun
10th
Mon
11th
Tue
12th
Wed
13th
Thu
14th
Fri
15th
Sat
16th
Sun
Total
events


Medal tableEdit

The top ten ranked NOCs at these Games are listed below. The host nation, Japan, is highlighted.

  *   Host nation (Japan)

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1  China (CHN)1268357266
2  Japan (JPN)*647579218
3  South Korea (KOR)635664183
4  Kazakhstan (KAZ)27252779
5  Uzbekistan (UZB)11121942
6  Iran (IRI)99826
7  Chinese Taipei (TPE)7132444
8  India (IND)431623
9  Malaysia (MAS)421319
10  Qatar (QAT)41510
11–32Remaining205891169
Totals (32 nations)3393374031079

Doping scandalEdit

The Chinese had 11 athletes test positive for the banned drugs and anabolic steroids at the 1994 Asian Games.[5] Less than a month before the Asian Games scandal at the 1994 world championships in Rome the Chinese had won 12 of the 16 women's swimming titles, with two of those nine world champions among those who tested positive at the Asian games.[6][7][8][9][10]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "Past Asian Games – Hiroshima 1994 Asian Games". beijing2008.cn (official website of 2008 Beijing Olympics). November 22, 2006. Archived from the original on June 17, 2013. Retrieved May 26, 2011.
  2. ^ a b "12th Asian Games Hiroshima 1994 - Poppo & CuCCu". GAGOC. gz2010.cn (official website of 2010 Asian Games). April 27, 2008. Retrieved May 26, 2011.
  3. ^ "The 11th Asian Games : Beijing, China". Hangzhou 2022 Official Website. 4 September 2018.
  4. ^ "Outline". Archived from the original on 1998-02-05. Retrieved 2019-02-21.
  5. ^ "10 Drug Scandals–Chinese swim team". cbc.ca (CBC Sports Online). January 19, 2003. Retrieved May 26, 2011.
  6. ^ Parr, Derek (July 13, 2000). "Chinese World Record-Holder Tests Positive for Steroids". swimmingworldmagazine.com (Swimming World Magazine). Archived from the original on 2012-09-02. Retrieved May 26, 2011.
  7. ^ Wolff, Alexandra (October 16, 1995). "The China Syndrome". sportsillustrated.com (Sports Illustrated). Retrieved May 26, 2011.
  8. ^ "OLYMPICS; Drug Sleuths' Surprise Produces a Breakthrough". The New York Times. 18 December 1994. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
  9. ^ "Swimming: Two-year ban for Chinese". The Independent. HighBeam Research. 13 December 1994. Archived from the original on 3 June 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
  10. ^ "Asian Games". The Washington Post. HighBeam Research. 5 December 1994. Archived from the original on 3 June 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2012.

External linksEdit

Preceded by
Beijing
Asian Games
Hiroshima

XII Asian Games (1994)
Succeeded by
Bangkok