1985 in aviation

This is a list of aviation-related events from 1985. It remains one of the deadliest years in aviation history for aviation disasters, including the crash of Japan Airlines Flight 123 (520 people killed), bombing of Air India Flight 182 (329), crash of Arrow Air Flight 1285 (256), crash of Aeroflot Flight 7425 (200), crash of Iberia Airlines Flight 610 (148), Delta Air Lines Flight 191 (137), Galaxy Airlines Flight 203 (70), and British Airtours Flight 28M (55), a mid-air collision between Aeroflot Flight 8381 and a Soviet Air Forces transport aircraft (94), the hijacking of Egyptair Flight 648 (60), and various crashes and other incidents with under 50 fatalities. August 1985 remains the worst single month for commercial aviation fatalities in history; a total of 2,010 people were killed in commercial aviation accidents in 1985; the second highest in commercial aviation history since 1942; only 1972 had more fatalities (2,373).[1]

Years in aviation: 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988
Centuries: 19th century · 20th century · 21st century
Decades: 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s
Years: 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988

EventsEdit

  • Lauda Air begins flight operations as a charter and air taxi service. It will begin scheduled service in 1987.
  • Ryanair is founded, initially as a full-service carrier.

JanuaryEdit

FebruaryEdit

MarchEdit

AprilEdit

MayEdit

JuneEdit

JulyEdit

AugustEdit

August 1985 remains commercial aviation's deadliest month for passengers and crew (a distinction from the non-passenger fatalities of the September 11, 2001 attacks) in history.

SeptemberEdit

OctoberEdit

NovemberEdit

DecemberEdit

  • December 12 – Arrow Air Flight 1285, a chartered McDonnell Douglas DC-8-63CF, crashes shortly after takeoff from Gander, Newfoundland (now Newfoundland and Labrador), while taking 248 soldiers of the United States Army's 101st Airborne Division from West Germany to the United States for Christmas, killing all 256 people on board.
  • December 19 – Yakutsk United Air Group Flight 101/435, an Antonov An-24 with 51 people on board making a domestic flight in the Soviet Union from Yakutsk to Chita, is hijacked by its co-pilot, Shamil Alimuradov, who is armed with a hatchet. He orders it to land in the People's Republic of China, and Soviet authorities give the airliner the radio frequency for Qiqihar Airport in Qiqihar, China. Alimuraov insist that the An-24 land at Hailar, China, instead; the airliner runs out of fuel before it can reach Hailar and makes an emergency landing in a rice field, where Chinese authorities arrest Alimuradov. The passengers and other crew members will fly back to the Soviet Union on December 21 in a Tupolev Tu-134 they meet at Harbin, China, and the An-24 flies back to the Soviet Union in January 1986.[25]
  • December 27 – Using assault rifles and hand grenades, four men attack the ticket counter El Al and Trans World Airlines share at Leonardo da Vinci-Fiumicino Airport outside Rome, Italy, and a few minutes later three others attack the El Al ticket counter at Vienna International Airport in Vienna, Austria, killing a combined total of 19 people and wounding about 140 at the two airports. Police kill three of the Rome attackers and one of the attackers in Vienna, and the rest are arrested in both cities. The Abu Nidal Organization claims credit for the attacks.[26]
  • December 31
    • The Iraqi Air Force claims to have flown 20,011 sorties against Iran, to have made 77 destructive hits on the Iranian oil terminal at Kharg Island, and to have hit 124 "hostile maritime targets" in the Persian Gulf; Iraq will declare 1985 "The Year of the Pilot." Some reports indicate that Iran has carried out a total of 60 air raids against Kharg Island, and the Iraqi Air Force has attacked more than 200 ships in the Persian Gulf since beginning such attacks in May 1981, with over 150 of those attacks occurring since March 1985.[27] Iraq claims to have bombed Tehran 30 times during 1985.[28]
    • During 1985, Iraq has made 33 air attacks against shipping in the Persian Gulf, one using bombs and the remainder using air-to-surface missiles, while Iran has conducted 10 air attacks against Persian Gulf shipping. The total of Iraqi air attacks against Persian Gulf shipping since 1984 has reached 68, one using bombs and the rest air-to-surface missiles, while Iran's total since 1984 has reached 28.[29]
    • American singer-songwriter and actor Ricky Nelson and six others die in the crash of a Douglas DC-3 near DeKalb, Texas.

First flightsEdit

FebruaryEdit

MarchEdit

JulyEdit

AugustEdit

SeptemberEdit

OctoberEdit

DecemberEdit

Entered serviceEdit

JuneEdit

DecemberEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ https://www.statista.com/chart/3335/people-killed-in-commercial-plane-crashes-since-1942/
  2. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, p. 217.
  3. ^ "38 killed in crash at airport". The News and Courier. January 21, 1985. Retrieved June 1, 2011.
  4. ^ TWA History Timeline Archived April 10, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ globalsecurity.org ETOPS: Extended Range Operation with Two-Engine Airplanes
  6. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved July 21, 2014.
  7. ^ a b c d e planecrashinfo.com Famous People Who Died in Aviation Accidents: 1980s
  8. ^ a b Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, p. 206.
  9. ^ Cordesman and Wagner, p. 521.
  10. ^ a b Cordesman and Wagner, p. 202.
  11. ^ Cordesman and Wagner, p. 203.
  12. ^ Cordesman and Wagner, p. 205.
  13. ^ Polmar, Norman, "Stars of David and Red Stars," Naval History, February 2013, p. 12.
  14. ^ Polmar, Norman, "Stars of David and Red Stars," Naval History, February 2013, p. 13.
  15. ^ Account of incident from USA Today.
  16. ^ Stevens, William K. (May 14, 1983). "Police Drop Bomb on Radicals' Home in Philadelphia". New York Times. Archived from the original on June 12, 2012. Retrieved August 31, 2012.
  17. ^ Frank Trippett (May 27, 1985). "It Looks Just Like a War Zone". TIME magazine. Retrieved February 15, 2009.
  18. ^ a b c Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, p. 209.
  19. ^ a b c d Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, p. 211.
  20. ^ Grier, Peter, "The Flying Tomato Can," Air Force Magazine, February 2009.
  21. ^ Dr. Raymond L. Puffer, The Death of a Satellite, [1], Retrieved on November 3, 2007.
  22. ^ a b Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, pp. 211–212.
  23. ^ Gardiner, Robert, Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1947–1982, Part One: The Western Powers, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1983, ISBN 0-87021-918-9, p. 66.
  24. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, p. 212.
  25. ^ "Passengers, Crew in Soviet Hijacking All Safe". Los Angeles Times. December 26, 1985. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  26. ^ Anonymous, "Today in History," The Washington Post Express, December 27, 2012, p. 22.
  27. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, pp. 211, 212.
  28. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, p. 279.
  29. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, pp. 339.
  30. ^ Taylor 1986, pp. 202–203
  31. ^ Taylor 1986, p. 278
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Taylor 1986, p. [67]
  33. ^ "T-46A is flown". Flight International October 26, 1985, p. 8.
  34. ^ Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 0-7607-0592-5, p. 23.
  • Taylor, John W. R., ed. (1986). Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1986–87. London: Jane's Yearbooks. ISBN 0-7106-0835-7.