1814 and 1815 United States Senate elections

The United States Senate elections of 1814 and 1815 were elections that had the Democratic-Republican Party lose a seat but still retain an overwhelming majority in the United States Senate. Unlike in recent elections, the minority Federalists had gone into the elections with a chance of regaining their long-lost majority had they swept almost all the seats. However, only one seat switched parties. Two seats held by Democratic-Republicans were left unfilled until long after the next Congress began.

1814 and 1815 United States Senate elections

← 1812/13 Dates vary by state 1816/17 →

12 of the 36 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
19 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Last election 28 seats 8 seats
Seats before 26 10
Seats won 5 5
Seats after 22 11
Seat change Decrease 3 Increase 1
Seats up 8 4

Majority party before election

Democratic-Republican

Elected Majority party

Democratic-Republican

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by state legislatures.

Change in compositionEdit

Before the electionsEdit

Composition after June 1814 special election in New Hampshire.

DR8 DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17 DR18
Majority → DR19
N.J.
Ran
F9
Mass.
Ran
F10
R.I.
Ran
DR26
Vt.
Retired
DR25
Tenn.
Retired
DR24
Ohio
Retired
DR23
N.Y.
Unknown
DR22
Md.
Unknown
DR21
Va.
Ran
DR20
Pa.
Ran
F8
Del.
Ran
F7
Conn.
Ran
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Result of the general electionsEdit

DR8 DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17 DR18
Majority → DR19
Pa.
Re-elected
F9
Mass.
Re-elected
F10
R.I.
Re-elected
F11
Vt.
Gain
V1
Tenn.
DR Loss
V2
Md.
DR Loss
DR23
Va.
Hold
DR22
Ohio
Hold
DR21
N.Y.
Hold
DR20
N.J.
Hold
F8
Del.
Re-elected
F7
Conn.
Re-elected
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1
Key:
DR# Democratic-Republican
F# Federalist
V# Vacant

Race summariesEdit

Except when noted, number following candidates is whole number votes.

Special elections during the preceding CongressEdit

In these special elections, the winner was elected during 1814 or before March 4, 1815; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Pennsylvania
(Class 3)
Michael Leib Democratic-
Republican
1809 (Special)
1808
Incumbent resigned to become Postmaster of Philadelphia.
New senator elected February 24, 1814.[1]
Democratic-Republican hold.
Winner was never seated due to a failure to qualify.
 Y Jonathan Roberts (Democratic-Republican) 82
Thomas Sergeant (Democratic-Republican) 23
Horace Binney (Federalist) 8
John Steele (Federalist) 1
Horatio Gates Jones (Democratic-Republican) 1
Isaac Wayne (Federalist) 1
Not voting 10[1]
New Hampshire
(Class 2)
Nicholas Gilman Democratic-
Republican
1804
1810
Incumbent died May 4, 1814.
New senator elected June 24, 1814.
Federalist gain.
 Y Thomas W. Thompson (Federalist) 93
Samuel Bell 80
Scattering 5[2]
Ohio
(Class 1)
Thomas Worthington Democratic-
Republican
1803
1807 (Retired)
1810 (Special)
Incumbent resigned to become Governor of Ohio.
New senator elected December 10, 1814 on the fourth ballot.
Democratic-Republican hold.
 Y Joseph Kerr (Democratic-Republican) 42
Benjamin Ruggles 36
Duncan MacArthur 1
David Purviance 1[3]
Kentucky
(Class 2)
George Walker Democratic-
Republican
1814 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected December 16, 1814.
Democratic-Republican hold.
 Y William T. Barry (Democratic-Republican) 58
Benjamin Mills 48[4]
North Carolina
(Class 3)
David Stone Democratic-
Republican
1800
1807 (Resigned)
1812
Incumbent resigned December 24, 1814.
New senator elected December 30, 1814 on the eleventh ballot.[5][6]
Democratic-Republican hold.
Winner was never seated due to a failure to qualify.
 Y Francis Locke Jr. (Democratic-Republican) 104
John Stanly (Federalist) 75[5]
Virginia
(Class 1)
Richard Brent Democratic-
Republican
1809 Incumbent died December 30, 1814, having lost re-election, see below.
New senator elected January 2, 1815, having already won election to the next term.
Democratic-Republican hold.
 Y James Barbour (Democratic-Republican) 107
William Wirt 80
Scattering 4[7]
Kentucky
(Class 3)
Jesse Bledsoe Democratic-
Republican
1813 Incumbent resigned.
New senator elected January 3, 1815 on the second ballot.
Democratic-Republican hold.
 Y Isham Talbot (Democratic-Republican) 56
Benjamin Mills 50[8]

Races leading to the next CongressEdit

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1815; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Connecticut Samuel Dana Federalist 1810 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1814.  Y Samuel Dana (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Delaware Outerbridge Horsey Federalist 1810 (Special) Incumbent re-elected January 13, 1815.  Y Outerbridge Horsey (Federalist) 18
John Warner (Democratic-Republican) 8[9]
Maryland Samuel Smith Democratic-
Republican
1802
1808
Legislature failed to elect.
A winner would not be elected until 1816.[10]
Democratic-Republican loss.
[Data unknown/missing.]
Massachusetts Christopher Gore Federalist 1813 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected in 1815.  Y Christopher Gore (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
New Jersey John Lambert Democratic-
Republican
1808 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected February 1, 1815 on the third ballot.[11]
Democratic-Republican hold.
 Y James Wilson (Democratic-Republican) 29[12]
John Lambert (Federalist) 17[12]
Ebenezer Elmer Withdrew[12]
New York Obadiah German Democratic-
Republican
1809 [Data unknown/missing.]
New senator elected February 7, 1815.[13][14]
Democratic-Republican hold.
 Y Nathan Sanford (Democratic-Republican) 89
James Emott (Federalist) 40
John Jay (Federalist) 1
Philetus Swift (Democratic-Republican) 1[13][14]
Ohio Joseph Kerr Democratic-
Republican
1814 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 7, 1815 on the third ballot.[15]
Democratic-Republican hold.
 Y Benjamin Ruggles (Democratic-Republican) 42
Duncan MacArthur 34
William Creighton Jr. 5
Peter Hitchcock 2[15]
Pennsylvania Jonathan Roberts Democratic-
Republican
1814 (Special) Incumbent re-elected December 10, 1814.[16]  Y Jonathan Roberts (Democratic-Republican) 84
Samuel Sitgreaves (Federalist) 32
Jared Ingersoll (Federalist) 1
Not voting 9[16]
Rhode Island William Hunter Federalist 1811 (Special) Incumbent re-elected November 4, 1814.  Y William Hunter (Federalist) Unanimous[17]
Tennessee Joseph Anderson Democratic-
Republican
1797 (Special)
1799 (Resigned)
1799 (Special)
1803
1809 (Appointed)
1809 (Special)
Incumbent retired.
Legislature failed to elect.
Democratic-Republican loss.
A new senator would later be elected, see below.
None.
Vermont Jonathan Robinson Democratic-
Republican
1807 (Special)
1808
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected October 25, 1814
Federalist gain.
 Y Isaac Tichenor (Federalist) 111
Jonathan Robinson (Democratic-Republican) 83
John Strong (Democratic-Republican) 7
Scattering, 1.[18]
Virginia Richard Brent Democratic-
Republican
1808 Incumbent lost re-election, and then died after the election.
New senator elected November 14, 1814.
Democratic-Republican hold.
 Y James Barbour (Democratic-Republican) 107
William Wirt 80
Scattering 4[7]

Special elections during the next CongressEdit

In this special election, the winner was elected in 1815 after March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Tennessee
(Class 1)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect, see above.
New senator elected October 10, 1815.
Democratic-Republican gain.
 Y George W. Campbell (Democratic-Republican) 37
Parry Wayne Humphreys 23[19]
Tennessee
(Class 2)
Jesse Wharton Democratic-
Republican
1814 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected October 10, 1815.
Democratic-Republican hold.
 Y John Williams (Democratic-Republican) 32
John Rhea 26[20]
North Carolina
(Class 3)
Francis Locke Jr. Democratic-
Republican
1800
1812
Incumbent resigned, having failed to qualify.
New senator elected December 5, 1815 on the fifth ballot.[21][22]
Democratic-Republican hold.
 Y Nathaniel Macon (Democratic-Republican) 101
John Branch Jr. (Democratic-Republican) 59
Scattering 27[21][22]
Virginia
(Class 2)
William B. Giles Democratic-
Republican
1804 (Appointed)
1804 (Special)
1804
1811
Incumbent resigned March 3, 1815.
New senator elected December 7, 1815.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Winner subsequently declined to serve.
A new senator was later elected in 1816.
 Y John Eppes (Democratic-Republican) 125
John Mercer 43

ConnecticutEdit

DelawareEdit

Kentucky (Special)Edit

There were two special elections in Kentucky: one in 1814 and the other in 1815.

MarylandEdit

MassachusettsEdit

Massachusetts (Special)Edit

New Hampshire (Special)Edit

New JerseyEdit

New YorkEdit

North Carolina (Special)Edit

OhioEdit

Ohio (Special)Edit

Pennsylvania (Special)Edit

PennsylvaniaEdit

Rhode IslandEdit

Tennessee (Special)Edit

TennesseeEdit

VermontEdit

VirginiaEdit

Virginia (Special)Edit

VirginiaEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "U.S. Senate Election - February 24, 1814" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 21, 2012.
  2. ^ "New Hampshire 1814 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 25, 2018., citing Concord Gazette (Concord, NH). June 28, 1814. Turner, Lynn Warren. The Ninth State: New Hampshire's Formative Years. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 1983. 292.
  3. ^ Taylor, William A. (1900). Ohio in Congress from 1803 to 1901 with Notes and Sketches of Senators and Representatives and Other Historical Data and Incidents. Columbus, Ohio: The XX. Century Publishing Co. pp. 98–99 – via Google Books.
  4. ^ "Kentucky 1814 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 25, 2018., citing The Western Monitor (Lexington, KY). December 23, 1814. Argus of Western America (Frankfort, KY). December 17, 1814.
  5. ^ a b "North Carolina 1814 U.S. Senate, Special, Ballot 11". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 26, 2018., citing Norfolk Gazette and Publick Ledger (Norfolk, VA). January 4, 1815.
  6. ^ "NC US Senate - Special Election". Our Campaigns. January 6, 2008. Retrieved February 24, 2015.
  7. ^ a b "Virginia 1814 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 27, 2018., citing Norfolk Gazette and Publick Ledger (Norfolk, VA). November 19, 1814.
  8. ^ "Kentucky 1815 U.S. Senate, Ballot 2". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 25, 2018., citing The Union (Washington, KY). January 14, 1815. Argus of Western America (Frankfort, KY). January 7, 1815.
  9. ^ "Delaware 1815 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 25, 2018., citing Journal of the Delaware House of Representatives, 1815. 37.
  10. ^ "MD US Senate". Our Campaigns. August 29, 2004. Retrieved February 27, 2015.
  11. ^ "NJ US Senate". Our Campaigns. April 1, 2007. Retrieved February 26, 2015.
  12. ^ a b c "New Jersey 1815 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 26, 2018., citing New Jersey Privy Council Records, 1814. 306-307.
  13. ^ a b "New York 1815 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 26, 2018., citing Ontario Messenger (Canandaigua, NY). February 21, 1815.
  14. ^ a b "NY US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
  15. ^ a b Taylor, William A. (1900). Ohio in Congress from 1803 to 1901 with Notes and Sketches of Senators and Representatives and Other Historical Data and Incidents. Columbus, Ohio: The XX. Century Publishing Co. p. 99 – via Google Books.
  16. ^ a b "U.S. Senate Election - December 10, 1814" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 21, 2012.
  17. ^ "Rhode Island 1814 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 27, 2018., citing The Rhode-Island American, and General Advertiser (Providence, RI). November 8, 1814.
  18. ^ "Tuesday, October 25th: Senator". Vermont Watchman. Montpelier, VT. October 27, 1814. p. 3. In addition to winning a majority in the legislature, Tichenor also unanimously received the 12 votes of the Governor and Council.
  19. ^ "Tennessee 1815 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 27, 2018., citing Original Tally Sheet. Tennessee State Library and Archives, Nashville. Journal of the Tennessee House of Representatives, 1815. 112. Journal of the Tennessee State Senate, 1815. 96-97.
  20. ^ "Tennessee 1815 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 27, 2018., citing Original Tally Sheet. Tennessee State Library and Archives, Nashville. Journal of the Tennessee House of Representatives, 1815. 112. Journal of the Tennessee State Senate, 1815. 96-97.
  21. ^ a b "North Carolina 1815 U.S. Senate, Special, Ballot 5". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 26, 2018., citing The Star (Raleigh, NC). December 8, 1815.
  22. ^ a b "NC US Senate - Special Election". Our Campaigns. January 6, 2008. Retrieved February 24, 2015.