1808 and 1809 United States Senate elections

The United States Senate elections of 1808 and 1809 were elections that had the Federalist Party gain one seat in the United States Senate, and which coincided with the 1808 presidential election. The Federalists had gone into the elections with such a small share of Senate seats (6 out of 34, or 18%) that even if they had won every election, they would have still remained a minority caucus.

1808 and 1809 United States Senate elections

← 1806/07 Dates vary by state 1810/11 →

12 of the 34 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
18 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Last election 27 seats 7 seats
Seats before 28 6
Seats won 8 4
Seats after 27 7
Seat change Decrease 1 Increase 1
Seats up 9 3

Majority Party before election


Democratic-Republican

Elected Majority Party


Democratic-Republican

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by state legislatures.

Results summaryEdit

Senate Party Division, 11th Congress (1809–1811)

  • Majority Party: Democratic-Republican (26)
  • Minority Party: Federalist (7–8)
  • Other Parties: 0
  • Total Seats: 34

Change in compositionEdit

Before the regular electionsEdit

DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR8 DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17
Majority → DR18
DR27
Pa.
Retired
DR26
R.I.
Unknown
DR25
Vt.
Ran
DR24
Tenn.
Ran
DR23
Ohio
Ran
DR22
N.Y.
Ran
DR21
N.J.
Ran
DR20
Md.
Ran
DR19
DR28
Va.
Retired
F6
Md.
Ran
F5
Del.
Ran
F4
Conn.
Ran
F3 F2 F1

Result of the regular electionsEdit

DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR8 DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17
Majority → DR18
V1
Tenn.
D Loss
DR26
Va.
Hold
DR25
Pa.
Hold
DR24
N.Y.
Hold
DR23
N.J.
Re-elected
DR22
Vt.
Re-elected
DR21
Ohio
Re-elected
DR20
Md.
Re-elected
DR19
F7
R.I.
Gain
F6
Md.
Hold
F5
Del.
Re-elected
F4
Conn.
Re-elected
F3 F2 F1
Key:
DR# Democratic-Republican
F# Federalist
V# Vacant

Race summariesEdit

Except if/when noted, the number following candidates is the whole number vote(s), not a percentage.

Special elections during the preceding CongressEdit

In these special elections, the winner was elected during 1808 or before March 4, 1809; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Massachusetts
(Class 1)
John Quincy Adams Federalist 1803 Incumbent resigned June 8, 1808, having broken with his party and lost re-election to the next term.
New senator elected June 9, 1808 having already won election to the next term, see below.
Federalist hold.
Ohio
(Class 1)
John Smith Democratic-
Republican
1803 Incumbent resigned April 25, 1808, despite surviving an expulsion trial in the Senate.
New senator elected December 10, 1808.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor was also elected the same day to the next term, see below.
Pennsylvania
(Class 1)
Samuel Maclay Democratic-
Republican
1802 Incumbent resigned before the December 1808 general election (but effective January 4, 1809), believing he would lose re-election.
New senator elected January 9, 1809.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Incumbent's belief was justified as the successor was elected to the next term, see below.

Races leading to the next CongressEdit

In these regular elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1809; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Connecticut James Hillhouse Federalist 1796
1797
1803
Incumbent re-elected in 1809.
Delaware Samuel White Federalist 1801 (Appointed)
1803
Incumbent re-elected January 11, 1809.
Maryland Samuel Smith Democratic-
Republican
1802 Incumbent re-elected November 14, 1809.
Massachusetts John Quincy Adams Federalist 1803 Incumbent lost re-election as a Democratic-Republican.
New senator elected June 2, 1808.
Federalist hold.
Incumbent resigned and winner was elected to finish the current term.
New Jersey John Condit Democratic-
Republican
1803 (Appointed)
1803 (Special)
Incumbent lost renomination.[7]
New senator elected November 3, 1808 on the second ballot.[7]
Democratic-Republican hold.
New York Samuel L. Mitchill Democratic-
Republican
1804 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected February 7, 1809.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Ohio Return Meigs Democratic-
Republican
1808 (Special) Incumbent elected December 10, 1808.
Pennsylvania Samuel Maclay Democratic-
Republican
1808 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected December 13, 1808 and subsequently elected to finish the remaining term.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Rhode Island Benjamin Howland Democratic-
Republican
1804 (Special) Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
New senator elected November 5, 1808.
Federalist gain.
Tennessee Joseph Anderson Democratic-
Republican
1797 (Special)
1799 (Resigned)
1799 (Special)
1803
Legislature failed to elect.
Democratic-Republican loss.
Incumbent was appointed to begin the term and was later elected to finish the term.
Election was late, see above
Vermont Jonathan Robinson Democratic-
Republican
1807 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1808.
Virginia Andrew Moore Democratic-
Republican
1804 (Appointed)
1804 (Resigned)
1804 (Special)
Incumbent retired.[12]
New senator elected in 1809.
Democratic-Republican hold.

Special elections during the next CongressEdit

In this special election, the winner was elected in 1809 after March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Tennessee
(Class 1)
Joseph Anderson Democratic-
Republican
1797 (Special)
1799 (Resigned)
1799 (Special)
1803
1809 (Appointed)
Interim appointee elected April 11, 1809.
Tennessee
(Class 2)
Daniel Smith Democratic-
Republican
1798 (Special)
1799 (Resigned)
1803
Incumbent resigned March 31, 1809.
New senator elected April 11, 1809.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Winner was subsequently re-elected early to the following Congress, see below.
Rhode Island
(Class 1)
Francis Malbone Federalist 1808 Newly seated incumbent died.
New senator elected June 26, 1809.
Federalist hold.
Ohio
(Class 3)
Stanley Griswold Democratic-
Republican
1809 (Appointed) Incumbent appointee retired.
New senator elected December 12, 1809.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Georgia
(Class 3)
John Milledge Democratic-
Republican
1806 (Special)
1806
Incumbent resigned November 14, 1809.
New senator elected November 27, 1809 on the third ballot.
Democratic-Republican hold.
New Jersey
(Class 2)
John Condit Democratic-
Republican
1803 (Appointed)
1803 (Special)
1809 (Lost)
1809 (Appointed)
Incumbent appointee elected November 2, 1809.

Early race leading to the Congress-after-nextEdit

In this regular election, the winner was seated on March 4, 1811; ordered by state.

This election involved a Class 2 seat.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Tennessee Jenkin Whiteside Democratic-
Republican
1809 (Special) Incumbent re-elected early October 28, 1809.

ConnecticutEdit

DelawareEdit

Georgia (Special)Edit

MarylandEdit

MassachusettsEdit

Massachusetts (Regular)Edit

June 1808 Senate election[20]
Party Candidate Votes %
Federalist James Lloyd Jr. 248 53.68%
Federalist John Quincy Adams 213 46.10%
Federalist Laban Wheaton 1 0.22%
Total votes 462 100.00%

Massachusetts (Special)Edit

New JerseyEdit

New Jersey (Regular)Edit

New Jersey (Special)Edit

New YorkEdit

OhioEdit

Ohio (Specials)Edit

PennsylvaniaEdit

Pennsylvania (Regular)Edit

Pennsylvania (Special)Edit

Rhode IslandEdit

Rhode Island (Regular)Edit

Rhode Island (Special)Edit

TennesseeEdit

Class 1Edit

Democratic-Republican Joseph Anderson had served in this and the other Senate seat on-and-off since 1797.

Tennessee (Regular, Class 1)Edit

The Tennessee legislature failed to elect a new senator.

The seat would have become vacant at the March 4, 1809 beginning of the term, but the Governor of Tennessee appointed Anderson to begin the term, pending a special election.

Tennessee (Special, Class 1)Edit

Anderson was elected April 11, 1809 to finish the term.

Class 2Edit

Democratic-Republican Daniel Smith was first elected in 1803.

Tennessee (Special, Class 2)Edit

Smith resigned March 31, 1809.

Democratic-Republican Jenkin Whiteside was elected April 11, 1809 to finish Smith's term, which would end 1809.

Tennessee (Regular, Class 2)Edit

Whiteside was re-elected early October 28, 1809, unopposed.[19]

VermontEdit

VirginiaEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ "Massachusetts 1808 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 18, 2018., citing The Freeman's Journal and Philadelphia Mercantile Advertiser (Philadelphia, PA). June 13, 1808.
  2. ^ a b Taylor, William A. (1900). Ohio in Congress from 1803 to 1901. Columbus, Ohio: Century Publishing Co. p. 97 – via Internet Archive.
  3. ^ "Pennsylvania 1809 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 3, 2018., citing Journal of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives, 1808. 174-176.
  4. ^ "Delaware 1809 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 18, 2018., citing United States' Gazette (Philadelphia, PA). January 14, 1809.
  5. ^ "Maryland 1809 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 18, 2018., citing The Hornet (Fredericktown, Md.). November 29, 1809.
  6. ^ "Massachusetts 1808 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 3, 2018., citing The Pittsfield Sun (Pittsfield, MA). June 11, 1808.
  7. ^ a b c "New Jersey 1808 U.S. Senate, Ballot 2". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 6, 2018., citing The True American and Commercial Advertiser (Philadelphia, PA). November 9, 1808.
  8. ^ "NY US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
  9. ^ "U.S. Senate Election - 13 December 1808" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 21, 2012.
  10. ^ "Rhode Island 1808 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 18, 2018., citing United States' Gazette (Philadelphia, PA). January 14, 1809.
  11. ^ "Vermont 1808 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 18, 2018., citing Weekly Wanderer (Randolph, VT). November 7, 1808.
  12. ^ a b "Virginia 1809 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 18, 2018., citing United States' Gazette (Philadelphia, PA). January 16, 1809.
  13. ^ "Tennessee 1809 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
  14. ^ "Tennessee 1809 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 30, 2018., citing The Minerva (Raleigh, NC). May 4, 1809. The Star (Raleigh, NC). May 4, 1809. National Intelligencer and Washington Advertiser (Washington, DC). May 5, 1809. The True American and Commercial Advertiser (Philadelphia, PA). May 10, 1809. Norwich Courier (Norwich, CT). May 17, 1809. White, Robert Hiram. Messages of the Governors of Tennessee, 1796-1821. Vol. 1. Nashville: The Tennessee Historical Commission, 1952.
  15. ^ "Rhode Island 1809 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 19, 2018., citing Newport Mercury (Newport, RI). July 1, 1809.
  16. ^ Taylor, William A. (1900). Ohio in Congress from 1803 to 1901. Columbus, Ohio: Century Publishing Co. pp. 97–98 – via Internet Archive.
  17. ^ "Georgia 1809 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 18, 2018., citing The Republican and Savannah Evening Ledger (Savannah, GA). December 5, 1809.
  18. ^ "New Jersey 1809 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 18, 2018., citing New Jersey Privy Council Records, 1809. 176.
  19. ^ a b "Tennessee 1809 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 29, 2018., citing Journal of the Tennessee House of Representatives, 1809. 115.
  20. ^ "Massachusetts 1808 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 3, 2018., citing The Pittsfield Sun (Pittsfield, MA). June 11, 1808.

External linksEdit