The One Hundred Sixteenth United States Congress is the current meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. It convened in Washington, D.C., on January 3, 2019, and will end on January 3, 2021, near the end of the fourth year of President Donald Trump's administration. Senators elected to regular terms in 2014 are finishing their terms in this Congress and House seats were apportioned based on the 2010 Census.

116th United States Congress
115th ←
→ 117th
U.S. Capitol Snow 2018 (32026277508).jpg
January 3, 2019 – January 3, 2021
Senate PresidentMike Pence (R)
Senate President pro temChuck Grassley (R)
House SpeakerNancy Pelosi (D)
Members100 senators
435 members of the House
6 non-voting delegates
Senate MajorityRepublican
House MajorityDemocratic
1st: January 3, 2019 – TBD
2nd: TBD – TBD
Opening Day ceremony for the 116th United States Congress on the House Floor
Opening day proceedings from the Senate

In the November 2018 midterm elections, the Democratic Party won a new majority in the House, while the Republican Party increased its majority in the Senate. Consequently, this is the first split Congress since the 113th Congress of 2013–2015, and the first Republican Senate, Democratic House split since the 99th Congress of 1985–1987. This Congress is considered to be the most diverse ever elected, and the youngest incoming class in the past three cycles.[1]


Major events

Major legislation

Party summary

Resignations and new members are discussed in the "Changes in membership" section below.


Affiliation Party
(shading indicates majority caucus)
Total Vacant
Democratic Independent Republican
End of previous Congress 47 2 50 99 1
Begin (January 3, 2019) 45 2 52 99 1
January 8, 2019[a] 53 100 0
Latest voting share 47.0% 53.0%

House of Representatives

Affiliation Party
(shading indicates majority caucus)
Total Vacant
Democratic Independent Republican
End of previous Congress 196 0 236 432 3
Begin (January 3, 2019)[b] 235 0 199 434 1
January 23, 2019[c] 198 433 2
February 10, 2019[d] 197 432 3
May 21, 2019[c] 198 433 2
July 4, 2019[e] 1 197
September 10, 2019[b][d] 199 435 0
September 23, 2019[f] 198 434 1
October 1, 2019[g] 197 433 2
Latest voting share 54.3% 0.2% 45.5%  
Non-voting members 3 1 2 6 0



Senate President
President pro tempore

Majority (Republican) Leadership

Minority (Democratic) Leadership

House of Representatives

House Speaker

Majority (Democratic) Leadership

Minority (Republican) Leadership


Most members of this Congress are Christian (88.2%), with approximately half being Protestant and 30.5% being Catholic. Jewish membership is 6.4%. Other religions represented include Buddhism, Islam, and Hinduism. One senator says that she is religiously unaffiliated, while the number of members refusing to specify their religious affiliation increased.[24][25][26]


The Senate includes 75 men and 25 women — the most women to date. In 6 states, both senators are women; 13 states are represented by 1 man and 1 woman; and 31 states are represented by 2 men. There are 91 non-Hispanic white, 4 Hispanic, 3 Black, 3 Asian, and 1 multiracial senators. Additionally, 2 senators identify as LGBTQ+.[1][27]

House of Representatives

There are 102 women in the House, the largest number in history.[28] There are 313 non-Hispanic whites, 56 black, 44 Hispanic, 15 Asian, and 4 Native American. Eight identify as LGBTQ+.[29] Two Democrats — Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and Donna Shalala — are the youngest (29) and oldest (77) freshmen women in history.[30] Freshmen women Rashida Tlaib (D-MI) and Ilhan Omar (DFL-MN) are the first two Muslim women and freshmen Sharice Davids (D-KS) and Deb Haaland (D-NM) are the first two female Native American members.[31]



The numbers refer to their Senate classes. All class 1 seats were contested in the November 2018 elections. In this Congress, class 1 means their term commenced in the current Congress, requiring re-election in 2024; class 2 means their term ends with this Congress, requiring re-election in 2020; and class 3 means their term began in the last Congress, requiring re-election in 2022.

House of Representatives

Changes in membership


Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[k]
Vacant Senator-elect chose to wait until finishing term as Governor of Florida.[32] Rick Scott
January 8, 2019
Johnny Isakson
Incumbent intends to resign December 31, 2019.[33]
A successor will be appointed to serve until a special election is held November 3, 2020.[33]

House of Representatives

District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[k]
North Carolina 9 Vacant Vacant from the January 3, 2019, beginning of the term as allegations of fraud in the 2018 general election prevented the results from being certified.
A special election was held September 10, 2019.[40]
Dan Bishop
September 17, 2019[41]
Pennsylvania 12 Tom Marino
Resigned January 23, 2019, to take job in private sector.[37]
A special election was held May 21, 2019.[42]
Fred Keller
June 3, 2019
North Carolina 3 Walter B. Jones Jr.
Died February 10, 2019.
A special election was held September 10, 2019.[43]
Greg Murphy
September 17, 2019[44]
Michigan 3 Justin Amash
Changed party July 4, 2019.[45] Justin Amash (I) July 4, 2019
Wisconsin 7 Sean Duffy
Resigned September 23, 2019.
A special election was scheduled to be held January 27, 2020.[5] However, this date had its legality contested by the Justice Department, with insufficient time following the primaries for military and overseas voters to receive absentee ballots being cited, so the date should be considered pending at this point.[46]
New York 27 Chris Collins
Resigned October 1, 2019.
A special election will be held.[47]


Section contents: Senate, House, Joint

Listed alphabetically by chamber, including Chair and Ranking Member.


Committee Chair Ranking Member[48]
Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry Pat Roberts (R-KS) Debbie Stabenow (D-MI)
Appropriations Richard Shelby (R-AL) Patrick Leahy (D-VT)
Armed Services Jim Inhofe (R-OK) Jack Reed (D-RI)
Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs Mike Crapo (R-ID) Sherrod Brown (D-OH)
Budget Mike Enzi (R-WY) Bernie Sanders (I-VT)
Commerce, Science and Transportation Roger Wicker (R-MS) Maria Cantwell (D-WA)
Energy and Natural Resources Lisa Murkowski (R-AK) Joe Manchin (D-WV)
Environment and Public Works John Barrasso (R-WY) Tom Carper (D-DE)
Finance Chuck Grassley (R-IA) Ron Wyden (D-OR)
Foreign Relations Jim Risch (R-ID) Bob Menendez (D-NJ)
Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Lamar Alexander (R-TN) Patty Murray (D-WA)
Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Ron Johnson (R-WI) Gary Peters (D-MI)
Judiciary Lindsey Graham (R-SC) Dianne Feinstein (D-CA)
Rules and Administration Roy Blunt (R-MO) Amy Klobuchar (D-MN)
Small Business and Entrepreneurship Marco Rubio (R-FL) Ben Cardin (D-MD)
Veterans' Affairs Johnny Isakson (R-GA) Jon Tester (D-MT)
Aging (Special) Susan Collins (R-ME) Bob Casey Jr. (D-PA)
Ethics (Select) Johnny Isakson (R-GA) Chris Coons (D-DE)
Indian Affairs (Permanent Select) John Hoeven (R-ND) Tom Udall (D-NM)
Intelligence (Select) Richard Burr (R-NC) Mark Warner (D-VA)
International Narcotics Control (Permanent Caucus) John Cornyn (R-TX) Dianne Feinstein (D-CA)

House of Representatives

Committee Chair Ranking Member
Agriculture Collin Peterson (D-MN) Mike Conaway (R-TX)
Appropriations Nita Lowey (D-NY) Kay Granger (R-TX)
Armed Services Adam Smith (D-WA) Mac Thornberry (R-TX)
Budget John Yarmuth (D-KY) Steve Womack (R-AR)
Education and Labor Bobby Scott (D-VA) Virginia Foxx (R-NC)
Energy and Commerce Frank Pallone (D-NJ) Greg Walden (R-OR)
Ethics Ted Deutch (D-FL) Kenny Marchant (R-TX)
Financial Services Maxine Waters (D-CA) Patrick McHenry (R-NC)
Foreign Affairs Eliot Engel (D-NY) Michael McCaul (R-TX)
Homeland Security Bennie Thompson (D-MS) Mike Rogers (R-AL)
House Administration Zoe Lofgren (D-CA) Rodney Davis (R-IL)
Judiciary Jerrold Nadler (D-NY) Doug Collins (R-GA)
Natural Resources Raúl Grijalva (D-AZ) Rob Bishop (R-UT)
Oversight and Reform Elijah Cummings (D-MD) Jim Jordan (R-OH)
Rules Jim McGovern (D-MA) Tom Cole (R-OK)
Science, Space and Technology Eddie Bernice Johnson (D-TX) Frank Lucas (R-OK)
Small Business Nydia Velázquez (D-NY) Steve Chabot (R-OH)
Transportation and Infrastructure Peter DeFazio (D-OR) Sam Graves (R-MO)
Veterans' Affairs Mark Takano (D-CA) Phil Roe (R-TN)
Ways and Means Richard Neal (D-MA) Kevin Brady (R-TX)
Climate Crisis (Select) Kathy Castor (D-FL) Garret Graves (R-LA)
Human Rights (Lantos Commission) Jim McGovern (D-MA) Chris Smith (R-NJ)
Intelligence (Permanent Select) Adam Schiff (D-CA) Devin Nunes (R-CA)
Modernization of Congress (Select) Derek Kilmer (D-WA) Tom Graves (R-GA)[49]


Committee Chair Vice Chair Ranking Member Vice Ranking Member
Economic Mike Lee (R-UT) Carolyn Maloney (D-NY) David Schweikert (R-AZ) Martin Heinrich (D-NM)
Library Roy Blunt (R-MO) Zoe Lofgren (D-CA) Rodney Davis (R-IL) Amy Klobuchar (D-MN)
Printing Zoe Lofgren (D-CA) Roy Blunt (R-MO) Amy Klobuchar (D-MN) Rodney Davis (R-IL)
Taxation[l] Rich Neal (D-MA) Chuck Grassley (R-IA) Ron Wyden (D-OR) Kevin Brady (R-TX)

Employees and legislative agency directors

See also


  1. ^ Rick Scott (R-Florida) assumed office on January 8, 2019, after his term as Governor of Florida expired.
  2. ^ a b c In North Carolina's 9th district: the November 2018 election results were not initially certified due to a dispute over voting irregularities and Dan Bishop (R) was elected September 10, 2019.
  3. ^ a b In Pennsylvania's 12th district: Tom Marino (R) resigned January 23, 2019, and Fred Keller (R) was elected May 21, 2019.
  4. ^ a b In North Carolina's 3rd district: Walter Jones (R) died February 10, 2019, and Greg Murphy (R) was elected September 10, 2019.
  5. ^ In Michigan's 3rd district: Justin Amash changed parties July 4, 2019, from Republican to Independent.
  6. ^ In Wisconsin's 7th district: Sean Duffy (R) resigned September 23, 2019. A special election was scheduled to be held January 27, 2020,[5] but this date had its legality contested by the Justice Department, so the date should be considered pending at this point.
  7. ^ In New York's 27th district: Chris Collins (R) resigned October 1, 2019.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g The Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party (DFL) is the Minnesota affiliate of the U.S. Democratic Party and its members are counted as Democrats.
  9. ^ Although Sanders is running for President in the Democratic primary and will claim to be a "bona fide Democrat" in accordance to DNC rules, he is currently and officially an Independent senator.[34]
  10. ^ In Michigan's 3rd district: Justin Amash changed from Republican to Independent July 4, 2019.[35]
  11. ^ a b This is the date the member was seated or an oath administered, not necessarily the same date her/his service began.
  12. ^ The Joint Taxation Committee leadership rotate the chair and vice chair and the ranking members between the House and Senate at the start of each session (calendar year) in the middle of the congressional term. The first session leadership is shown here.


  1. ^ a b Jin, Beatrice (January 7, 2019) [First published November 23, 2018]. "Congress's incoming class is younger, bluer, and more diverse than ever". Politico. Retrieved January 31, 2019.
  2. ^ "PRESIDENT TRUMP STATE OF THE UNION ADDRESS". Associated Press. February 5, 2019. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  3. ^ Gay Stolberg, Sheryl (January 23, 2019). "Trump Say's He'll Delay Speech Until After Shutdown, as Democrats Draft Border Security Plan". The New York Times. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  4. ^ "Michael D. Cohen's Congressional Testimony". The New York Times. February 27, 2019. Retrieved March 6, 2019.
  5. ^ a b Bauer, Scott (September 23, 2019). "Duffy serves final day in House; Evers sets January election". Associated Press. Reading Eagle. Retrieved September 23, 2019.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w "Leadership & Officers". Retrieved January 8, 2019.
  7. ^ Wagner, John; DeBonis, Mike (November 14, 2018). "Congressional leadership elections: House Republicans elect Kevin McCarthy as next leader; Pelosi seeks to shore up votes for speaker". The Washington Post PowerPost blog. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Fandos, Nicholas (November 14, 2018). "House Republicans Pick Kevin McCarthy as Their Next Leader". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 22, 2018. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
  9. ^ a b c d Bolton, Alexander (November 14, 2018). "McConnell reelected as leader, Thune promoted to whip". The Hill. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
  10. ^ a b "Senator Lankford to Serve on Deputy Whip Team for 116th Congress - U.S. Senator James Lankford of Oklahoma".
  11. ^ Lesniewski, Niels (January 3, 2019). "Dick Durbin says he's running for Senate re-election in 2020, unofficially". Roll Call. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
  12. ^ Lesniewski, Niels (November 15, 2018). "Catherine Cortez Masto Becomes First Latina to Lead DSCC". Roll Call. Archived from the original on December 6, 2018. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
  13. ^ "Schatz, Booker Elevated To Leadership Posts - U.S. Senator Brian Schatz of Hawaii".
  14. ^ McPherson, Lindsey; McPherson, Lindsey (November 28, 2018). "Steny Hoyer Elected House Majority Leader". Roll Call. Archived from the original on November 29, 2018. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  15. ^ McPherson, Lindsey (November 28, 2018). "James Clyburn Elected Majority Whip". Roll Call. Archived from the original on December 9, 2018. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  16. ^ McPherson, Lindsey (November 28, 2018). "Rep. Ben Ray Luján Elected Assistant Democratic Leader". Roll Call. Archived from the original on November 29, 2018. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  17. ^ McPherson, Lindsey (November 28, 2018). "Hakeem Jeffries Wins Democratic Caucus Chair Race Against Barbara Lee". Roll Call. Archived from the original on November 28, 2018. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  18. ^ McPherson, Lindsey (November 29, 2018). "Katherine Clark Elected House Democratic Caucus Vice Chair". Roll Call. Archived from the original on December 9, 2018. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  19. ^ Pathé, Simone (November 29, 2018). "Cheri Bustos Elected DCCC Chair". Roll Call. Archived from the original on December 9, 2018. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  20. ^ a b c McPherson, Lindsey (December 4, 2018). "House Democrats' New Elected Leadership Team Is More Progressive and Diverse". Roll Call. Archived from the original on December 5, 2018. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  21. ^ a b c "DeGette dropped from chief deputy whip spot". December 13, 2018. Archived from the original on December 14, 2018. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g "Here's the List of House Republican Leaders for the Next Congress". Roll Call. November 14, 2018. Archived from the original on December 6, 2018. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
  23. ^ McPherson, Lindsey (November 27, 2018). "Scalise Appoints Rep. Drew Ferguson as House GOP's Chief Deputy Whip". Roll Call. Archived from the original on November 28, 2018. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
  24. ^ "Faith on the Hill". January 3, 2019. Archived from the original on January 4, 2019. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
  25. ^ Women Elected at Historic Levels, But No Surprise Here: White Men Dominate 116th Congress Archived November 21, 2018, at the Wayback Machine November 7, 2018
  26. ^ "As Christians split over Trump, minority faiths make their mark". Archived from the original on January 2, 2019. Retrieved January 2, 2019. November 7, 2018
  27. ^ Edmondson, Catie; Lee, Jasmine C. (November 28, 2018). "Meet the New Freshmen in Congress: More Democrats, Diversity and Women". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 29, 2018. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
  28. ^ "A record number of women will be serving in the new Congress". Pew Research. December 18, 2018. Archived from the original on December 29, 2018. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  29. ^ Panetta, Grace; Lee, Samantha (December 16, 2018). "This one graphic shows how much more diverse the House of Representatives will become in January". Business Insider. Archived from the original on December 23, 2018. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
  30. ^ Grow, Jason (January 18, 2019). "'We Call Ourselves the Badasses': Meet the New Women of Congress". POLITICO. Retrieved January 20, 2019.
  31. ^ "First Native American congresswomen hug after swearing-in". CNN. January 3, 2019. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  32. ^ a b Sonmez, Felicia (January 8, 2019). "Rick Scott sworn in as Florida's newest senator". South Florida SunSentinel. Retrieved February 3, 2019.
  33. ^ a b c Mattingly, Phil (August 28, 2019). "Georgia Republican Sen. Johnny Isakson to resign at end of year". CNN. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
  34. ^ DiStaso, John (February 22, 2019). "Independent Bernie Sanders to put in writing that he's a 'bona fide' Democrat". WMUR.
  35. ^ Byrd, Haley (July 4, 2019). "Trump critic Justin Amash quits Republican Party". CNN. Retrieved July 4, 2019.
  36. ^ Sullivan, Kate. "Walter Jones dies at 76". CNN. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  37. ^ a b Burke, Michael. "GOP Rep. Tom Marino resigns from Congress". The Hill. Retrieved January 17, 2019.
  38. ^ "KELLER, Fred - Biographical Information". Retrieved June 24, 2019.
  39. ^ Gilbert, Craig; Beck, Molly (August 26, 2019). "GOP Congressman Sean Duffy says he's stepping down due to new baby". USA Today. Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Retrieved August 29, 2019.
  40. ^ Caldwell, Leigh Ann. "New election ordered in North Carolina House district after possible illegal activities". NBC News. Retrieved February 21, 2019.
  41. ^ Jim, Morrill (September 13, 2019). "Rep.-elect Bishop to be sworn in on Tuesday, leaving a scramble for his Senate seat". Retrieved September 26, 2019.
  42. ^ Tom Wolf [@GovernorTomWolf] (January 24, 2019). "Having heard the concerns of county officials, I am scheduling the special election to fill the remainder of Congressman Marino's term on May 21, 2019, to coincide with the primary election" (Tweet). Retrieved January 24, 2019 – via Twitter.
  43. ^ Jurkowitz, Mark. "The jam-packed sprint to succeed Walter Jones". Retrieved July 4, 2019.
  44. ^ "Friends to Elect Dr. Greg Murphy to Congress". Retrieved October 2, 2019.
  45. ^ Conradis, Brandon (July 4, 2019). "Rep. Amash, lone GOP critic of Trump, leaves Republican Party". The Hill. Retrieved July 4, 2019.
  46. ^ "Gov. Tony Evers to move date of Wisconsin's special congressional vote". Associated Press. WTMJ-TV Milwaukee. October 1, 2019. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  47. ^ Merle, Renae; DeBonis, Mike (September 30, 2019). "Republican Rep. Chris Collins resigns House seat ahead of guilty plea to insider-trading charges". Washington Post. Retrieved October 2, 2019.
  48. ^ Solender, Andrew [@AndrewSolender] (December 11, 2018). "The office of @SenSchumer has released an official list of Senate Democratic Ranking Members and Vice Chairmen" (Tweet). Retrieved December 11, 2018 – via Twitter.
  49. ^ "Leader McCarthy Names Members for the House Select Committee on the Modernization of Congress". February 11, 2019.
  50. ^ "Appointed Officials of the House". Retrieved September 25, 2019.
  51. ^ "The Office of the Chaplain, United States House of Representatives". Retrieved January 8, 2019.
  52. ^ "CAO Senior Management". Retrieved September 24, 2019.
  53. ^ "Parliamentarian of the House". United States House of Representatives. Retrieved September 24, 2019.
  54. ^ "Sergeant at Arms". United States House of Representatives. Retrieved September 24, 2019.
  55. ^ "Architects of the Capitol". Architect of the Capitol. Retrieved September 24, 2019.
  56. ^ "U.S. GAO - About GAO - Comptroller General". Retrieved September 24, 2019.
  57. ^ "First Day at CBO". Retrieved September 24, 2019.
  58. ^ "About the Librarian". Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. Retrieved September 24, 2019.
  59. ^ "The White House Announces the Withdrawal of GPO Director Nominee". Retrieved September 24, 2019.
  60. ^ "Office of Law Revision Counsel". Retrieved September 25, 2019.
  61. ^ "Office of House Legislative Counsel". Retrieved September 25, 2019.

External links