1012 Sarema

1012 Sarema (prov. designation: A924 AD or 1924 PM) is a dark background asteroid from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 21 kilometers (13 miles) kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 12 January 1924, by German astronomer Karl Reinmuth at the Heidelberg-Königstuhl State Observatory at Heidelberg, Germany.[1] The asteroid has a rotation period of 10.3 hours and probably an elongated shape.[3] It was named after Sarema, a character in the poem The Fountain of Bakhchisaray by Aleksandr Pushkin, and the protagonist of the opera Sarema by Alexander von Zemlinsky based upon it.[2]

1012 Sarema
001012-asteroid shape model (1012) Sarema.png
Modelled shape of Sarema from its lightcurve
Discovery [1]
Discovered byK. Reinmuth
Discovery siteHeidelberg Obs.
Discovery date12 January 1924
(1012) Sarema
Named after
(character in opera/poem)
1924 PM · 1942 VC1
1954 XL · 1954 YF
A907 VQ · A907 WA
A924 AD
main-belt · Nysa[3]
background [4]
Orbital characteristics[5]
Epoch 23 March 2018 (JD 2458200.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc110.21 yr (40,255 d)
Aphelion2.8132 AU
Perihelion2.1460 AU
2.4796 AU
3.90 yr (1,426 d)
0° 15m 8.64s / day
Physical characteristics
Mean diameter
16.06±5.63 km[6]
17.228±5.264 km[7]
18.18±5.40 km[8]
20.905±0.122 km[9]
21.12±1.3 km[10]
21.13 km (derived)[3]
21.144±0.115 km[11]
22.96±0.49 km[12]
10.30708 h[13][14]
10.32 h[15]
0.0450 (derived)[3]
Tholen = F[3][5]
B–V = 0.693[5]
U–B = 0.189[5]
12.26[8] · 12.36[3][11]

Orbit and classificationEdit

Sarema is a non-family asteroid of the main belt's background population when applying the hierarchical clustering method to its proper orbital elements.[4] Based on osculating Keplerian orbital elements, the asteroid has also been classified as a member of the Nysa family (405), the largest asteroid family of the main belt, consisting of stony and carbonaceous subfamilies. The family, named after 44 Nysa, is located in the inner belt near the Kirkwood gap (3:1 orbital resonance with Jupiter), a depleted zone that separates the central main belt.[3]

It orbits the Sun in the inner asteroid belt at a distance of 2.1–2.8 AU once every 3 years and 11 months (1,426 days; semi-major axis of 2.48 AU). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.13 and an inclination of 4° with respect to the ecliptic.[5]

The body's observation arc begins with its first observation as A907 VQ at Heidelberg in November 1907, more than 16 years prior to its official discovery observation.[1]


This minor planet was named after a character in a poem by Aleksandr Pushkin, made into the opera Sarema by Alexander von Zemlinsky. The official naming citation was mentioned in The Names of the Minor Planets by Paul Herget in 1955 (H 97). The asteroid's name was suggested by Russian astronomer Nikolaj Komendantov (also see 3958 Komendantov).[2]

Physical characteristicsEdit

In the Tholen classification, Sarema is an uncommon F-type asteroid of the carbonaceous C-complex.[3][5]

Rotation period and polesEdit

In April 1983, a first rotational lightcurve of Sarema was obtained from photometric observations by American astronomer Richard Binzel. Lightcurve analysis gave a well-defined rotation period of 10.32 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.81 magnitude (U=3), which is indicative for an elongated, non-spherical shape.[15]

In 2009 and 2011, two modeled lightcurves gave a concurring sidereal period 10.30708 hours, combining sparse and dense photometric data from the Uppsala Asteroid Photometric Catalogue and other sources. The two studies also determined two spin axis of (45.0°, 67.0°) and (253.0°, 63.0°), as well as (51.0°, 64.0°) and (254.0°, 53.0°) in ecliptic coordinates (λ, β), respectively.[13][14]

Diameter and albedoEdit

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Sarema measures between 16.06 and 22.96 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.0342 and 0.07.[6][7][8][9][10][11][12] The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.045 and a diameter of 21.13 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 12.36.[3]


  1. ^ a b c "1012 Sarema (1924 PM)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(1012) Sarema". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1012) Sarema. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 87. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_1013. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i "LCDB Data for (1012) Sarema". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  4. ^ a b "Asteroid 1012 Sarema – Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0". Small Bodies Data Ferret. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1012 Sarema (1924 PM)" (2018-01-26 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  6. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; et al. (December 2015). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year One: Preliminary Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 814 (2): 13. arXiv:1509.02522. Bibcode:2015ApJ...814..117N. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/814/2/117. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  7. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Nugent, C.; Mainzer, A. K.; Wright, E. L.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; et al. (October 2017). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Three: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astronomical Journal. 154 (4): 10. arXiv:1708.09504. Bibcode:2017AJ....154..168M. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aa89ec.
  8. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Kramer, E. A.; Grav, T.; et al. (September 2016). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Two: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astronomical Journal. 152 (3): 12. arXiv:1606.08923. Bibcode:2016AJ....152...63N. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/3/63. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  9. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv:1406.6645. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..121M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121.
  10. ^ a b c d Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System. 12: IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  11. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90.
  12. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 17 October 2019. (online, AcuA catalog p. 153)
  13. ^ a b Hanus, J.; Durech, J.; Broz, M.; Warner, B. D.; Pilcher, F.; Stephens, R.; et al. (June 2011). "A study of asteroid pole-latitude distribution based on an extended set of shape models derived by the lightcurve inversion method". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 530: 16. arXiv:1104.4114. Bibcode:2011A&A...530A.134H. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201116738.
  14. ^ a b Durech, J.; Kaasalainen, M.; Warner, B. D.; Fauerbach, M.; Marks, S. A.; Fauvaud, S.; et al. (January 2009). "Asteroid models from combined sparse and dense photometric data" (PDF). Astronomy and Astrophysics. 493 (1): 291–297. Bibcode:2009A&A...493..291D. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200810393. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  15. ^ a b c Binzel, R. P. (October 1987). "A photoelectric survey of 130 asteroids". Icarus. 72 (1): 135–208. Bibcode:1987Icar...72..135B. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(87)90125-4. ISSN 0019-1035. Retrieved 3 March 2018.

External linksEdit