École polytechnique (French pronunciation: [ekɔl pɔlitɛknik]; also known as EP or X) is a French public institution of higher education and research in Palaiseau, a suburb southwest of Paris. It is one of the most prestigious and selective French scientific and engineering schools, called grandes écoles in French. It is known for its ingénieur polytechnicien scientific degree program which is equivalent to both a bachelor and master of science. Its entrance exam, the X-ENS exam, is renowned for its selectivity with a little over 400 admitted students out of the 5,206 students enrolled in the preparatory programs for the French scientific and engineering schools taking the exam.
|Motto||Pour la Patrie, les Sciences et la Gloire|
Motto in English
|For Fatherland, Sciences and Glory|
|Undergraduates||70 Bachelor Students|
|Postgraduates||1,742 Engineer Students|
|Affiliations||ParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, CGE, EuroTech Universities, CDEFI|
The school was established in 1794 by the mathematician Gaspard Monge during the French Revolution, and was a military academy under Napoleon I in 1804. Although Polytechnique is no longer a military academy, the school is still supervised by the French ministry of defense, though only a small number of its students choose to pursue a military career. Initially located in the Latin Quarter of central Paris, the school's main buildings were moved in 1976 to Palaiseau on the Saclay Plateau.
Polytechnique has engaged in several partnerships to improve its international renown. It is a founding member of ParisTech, a grouping of leading engineering colleges in the Paris region established in 2007. In 2014 it also became a founding member of the confederal University of Paris-Saclay. Among its alumni are three Nobel prize winners, three Presidents of France and many CEOs of French and international companies. As of 2018, it is associated with 4 Fields Medal winners and is also currently ranked as the world's third-best small university by Times Higher Education's World University Rankings.
During the 19th century, the specific model of École Polytechnique inspired the foundation of other well-known schools also named "Polytechnic," such as Polytechnique Montréal, Athens Polytechnic, MIT, EPFL and Caltech (initially a vocational school named the Throop "Polytechnic" Institute).
The history of the École Polytechnique dates back over 200 years, to the time of the French Revolution. In 1794, the École centrale des travaux publics was founded by Lazare Carnot and Gaspard Monge at the time of the National Convention. It was renamed École polytechnique one year later. In 1805, Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte settled the École on Montagne Sainte-Geneviève, in the Quartier Latin, in central Paris ( ), as a military academy and gave its motto Pour la Patrie, les Sciences et la Gloire (For the Nation, science and glory). In 1814, students took part in the Battle of Paris against the Sixth Coalition. In 1830, fifty students participated in the July Revolution. In 1848, Polytechnique students were the leaders of the French Revolution of 1848. They were an important part of the post-revolutionary process, with one student (Charles de Freycinet) becoming part of the post-revolution government. They were given the right to wear a sword as a recognition.
During the First World War, students were mobilized and the school building was transformed into a hospital. More than two hundred students were killed fighting for France during the war. During the Second World War, Polytechnique was moved away to Lyon in the free zone. More than four hundred polytechniciens were killed during the war, as part of Free French and French Resistance operations, or in Nazi camps.
In 1970, École Polytechnique became a state-supported civilian institution, under the auspices of the Ministry of Defence. In 1972, women were admitted for the first time. In 1976, École Polytechnique moved from Paris to Palaiseau (approximately 25 kilometres (16 mi) from Paris) In 1985, it started awarding PhD degrees. In 1994, celebration of the bicentennial was chaired by President François Mitterrand. In 2000, a new cursus was set in place, passing to four years and reforming the polytechnicien curriculum. In 2005, École Polytechnique started awarding master's degrees. In 2007, it became a founding member of UniverSud Paris and ParisTech. In December 2014, it became a founding member of University of Paris-Saclay.
Montagne Saint-Geneviève (1805–1976)Edit
Napoleon moved Polytechnique to the Quartier Latin in 1805 when he set the school under a military administration. The Paris' campus is located near the Panthéon, in rue Descartes, 5. It is nicknamed "Carva" by the students.
Palaiseau (since 1976)Edit
At 15 kilometres from Paris, the campus of the École Polytechnique is a privileged setting. It offers about 164 ha (including 120 ha of green space) teaching facilities, student housing, food services and hospitality and an exceptional range of sports facilities to the 4,600 people who live on a daily basis campus. The nearest regional train (RER) station is Gare de Lozère (RER B, zone 4). A number of buses also connect the École Polytechnique with the larger RER and TGV station Massy-Palaiseau. The campus is close to other great scientific institutions in Saclay (CEA Centre), Orsay (Université Paris-Sud) and Gif (IHES and some CNRS laboratories).
The campus will be at the heart of the Engineering and Innovation sector of the confederal "University of Paris in Saclay". Major works are in progress to expand it and connect it to an automatic metro line direct to Paris.
Organisation and administrationEdit
Polytechnique is a higher education establishment running under the supervision of the French ministry of Defence, through the General Directorate for Armament (administratively speaking, it is a national public establishment of an administrative character). It has always had a double status, being both an engineering school that formed civilian engineers and scientists (substantially all French higher administration in technical ministries is issued from Polytechnique, similarly to the graduates of Ecole Nationale d'Administration for non-technical ministries) but also officers for the three armies (Army, Navy and Air Force). These two components being part of the same project of providing French state with a scientific and technical elite that could lead the country in a very 19th century like "positivist" vision of state. These two components, formation of civil servants and officers, have weakened after 1950, and nowadays only about 10% of students of Polytechnique choose to pursue career in the army or public service (among which 20% pursue research positions, and the remaining majority fill in engineering or management roles). Most graduates also prefer to work abroad in United States or United Kingdom after graduation instead of joining the public service.
Though no longer a military academy, it is headed by a general officer (as of 2012, by a General engineer of Armament, whereas previous directors were generally Army generals), and employs military personnel in executive, administrative and sport training positions. Both male and female French undergraduate polytechniciens are regular officers and have to go through a period of military training before the start of studies.
However, the military aspects of the school have lessened with time, with a reduced period of preliminary military training, and fewer and fewer students pursuing careers as military officers after leaving the school. On special occasions, such as the military parade on the Champs-Élysées on Bastille Day, the polytechniciens wear the 19th-century-style grand uniform, with the bicorne, or cocked hat, but students have not typically worn a uniform on campus since the elimination of the 'internal uniform' in the mid-1980s. The students also wear grand uniform in day-use for special events on the campus, such as important conferences, formal events, or important lessons, similarly to the use of academic dress in Cambridge or Oxford Universities.
Activities and teaching staffEdit
Polytechnique has a combined undergraduate-graduate general engineering teaching curriculum as well as a graduate school. In addition to the faculty coming from its local laboratories, it employs many researchers and professors from other institutions, including other CNRS, INRIA and CEA laboratories as well as the École Normale Supérieure and nearby institutions such as the CentraleSupélec, the Institut d'Optique or the Université Paris-Sud, creating a varied and high-level teaching environment.
Contrary to French public universities, the teaching staff at Polytechnique are not civil servants (fonctionnaires) but contract employees operating under regulations different from those governing university professors. An originality of Polytechnique is that in addition to full-time teaching staff (exercice complet), who do research at the school in addition to a full teaching service, there are partial-time teaching staff (exercice incomplet) who do not do research on behalf of the school and carry only a partial teaching load. Part-time teaching staff are often recruited from research institutions (CNRS, CEA, INRIA) operating inside the school's campus, in the Paris region, or even sometimes elsewhere in France.
Polytechnicien engineer programmeEdit
The polytechnicien engineer programme is the most intensive and prestigious programme in Polytechnique. The programme which award the prestigious Diplôme d'Ingénieur degree includes broader training than other typical public French university studies, which does not admit students based on competitive examination. The subjects are often including advanced topics beyond one's specialty. This focus on breadth rather than depth is particularly useful for cross fertilisation purposes between different fields, as graduates from Polytechnique can have généraliste abilities in several disciplines; for example, they must follow at least four different topics during their second year. Humanities and sports are also mandatory parts of the curriculum, adding to the differences with other French university programs in general.
In addition to the 2000 Polytechnique engineer students (yearly class size of about 500), the institution welcomes about 439 master students and 572 doctoral students, for a total enrollment of 2,900.
The undergraduate admission to Polytechnique in the polytechnicien cycle is made through two ways: the first pathway which is a very selective examination which requires at least two years of very intensive preparation after high school in classes préparatoires, and the other pathway by following undergraduate study at another university. Admission includes a week of written examinations during the spring followed by oral examinations that are handled in batches (séries) over the summer.
About only 400 French nationals are admitted to the prestigious school each year. Foreign students who have followed a classe préparatoire curriculum (generally, French residents or students from former French colonies in Africa) can also enter through the same competitive exam (they are known as "EV1"). Other Foreigner students can also apply for the polytechnicien cycle through a "second track" ("EV2") following undergraduate studies. In total, there are about 100 foreign students admitted to this cycle each year. Foreign students from other universities in Europe or the USA may also be accepted to study undergraduate courses as an exchange program at polytechnique for a semester or one year, without being part of the polytechnicien cycle.
Four years of intensive study are required for the engineering degree: one year of military service (for French nationals only) and scientific "common trunk" (eight months and four months, respectively), one year of multidisciplinary studies, and one year of specialized studies ("majors"). With the X2000 reform, a fourth year of studies, in another institution than Polytechnique, was introduced.
- First year
The curriculum begins with eight months of compulsory military service for students of French nationality. In the past, this service lasted 12 months and was compulsory for all French students; the suppression of the draft in France made this requirement of Polytechnique somewhat anachronistic, and the service was recast as a period of "human and military formation". All the French students spend one month together in La Courtine in a military training center. By the end of this month, they are assigned either to a civilian service or to the Army, Navy, Air Force or Gendarmerie. Students who are assigned to a military service complete a two-month military training in French officer schools such as Saint-Cyr or École Navale. Finally, they are spread out over a wide range of units for a five-month assignment to a French military unit (which can include, but is not limited to, infantry and artillery regiments, naval ships and air bases). While French students stay under military status during their studies at Polytechnique, and participate in a variety of ceremonies and other military events, for example national ceremonies, such as those of Bastille Day or anniversaries of the armistices of the World Wars, they do not undergo military training per se after having completed their service in the first year. They receive at the end of the first year the full dress uniform, which comprises black trousers with a red stripe (a skirt for females), a coat with brass buttons and a belt, a small sword and a cocked hat (officially called a bicorne). Francophone foreign students do a civilian service. Civilian service can, for instance, consist of being an assistant in a high school in a disadvantaged French suburb.
Then, a four-month period begins in which all students take the same six courses : Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, Physics, Computer Science, Economics and Humanities.
- Second year
The second year is a year of multidisciplinary studies. The set of disciplines spans most areas of science (mathematics, applied mathematics, mechanics, computer science, biology, physics, chemistry, economics) and some areas in the humanities (foreign languages, general humanities...). Students have to choose twelve scientific courses in at least four different disciplines, including one applied course in one of the school labs.
- Third year
In the third year, students have to choose an in-depth program (programme d'approfondissement), which often focuses on a discipline or sometimes an interdisciplinary subject. This year is ended by a research internship (four to six months).
- Fourth year
The fourth year is the beginning of more specialized studies: students not entering a Corps de l'État must join either a Master's program, a doctorate program, another ParisTech college or institute such as the École des mines de Paris or ENSAE, or a specialization institute such as Supaéro in Toulouse or ENSPM in Rueil-Malmaison. The reason for this is that the generic education given at Polytechnique is more focused on developing thinking skills than preparing for the transition to an actual engineering occupation, which requires further technical education. Around 35% spend their fourth year studying abroad at a foreign university.
Class rank and career pathEdit
Grades of the second year of the curriculum are used to rank the students. Traditionally, this individual exit ranking had a very high importance for French students in École Polytechnique, and some peculiarities of the organizations of studies and grading can be traced to the need for a fair playing ground between students.
For French nationals (citizens only, not Foreign students), this ranking is actually part of a government recruitment program: a certain number of seats in civil or military Corps, including elite civil servant Corps such as the Corps des Mines or Corps of Bridges, Waters and Forests, are open to the student body each year. These specific civil servant corps, that provide the top managers of public administration, are only opened to Polytechnique students (and recently very few students from Ecole Normale Supérieure). At some point during their course of study, students specify a list of Corps that they would like to enter in order of preference, and they are enrolled into the highest one according to their ranking. The next stepping stone for these French graduates in Polytechnique, or polytechniciens, on this path is to enter one of four technical civil service training schools: the École des mines, the École des ponts et chaussées, the Télécom ParisTech, or the ENSAE, thus joining one of the civil service bodies known as the grands corps techniques de l'État. Those who pursue this path are known as X-Mines, X-Ponts, X-Télécoms and X-INSEE, respectively, with the X prefix, for Polytechnique, identifying them as the most particularly top qualified elite members of Corps among all other graduates of the Polytechnique.
Since the X2000 reform, the importance of the ranking has lessened. Except for the Corps curricula, universities and schools where the Polytechniciens complete their educations now base their acceptance decisions on transcripts of all grades.
Tuition and financial obligationsEdit
For French nationals who gain admission to Polytechnique, tuition is free as long as the full curriculum is completed, and additional monetary allowance is received throughout the school years at the level of a reserve officer in training. French students, through the student board (Caisse des élèves or Kès), can redistribute a part of this money to foreign students.
There is no particular financial obligation for students following the curriculum, and then entering an application school or graduate program that Polytechnique approves of. However, French students who choose to enter a civilian or military corps after Polytechnique are expected to complete 10 years of public service following their admission to the school (i.e. their 3 years at school count towards their time of service). If a student enters a Corps but does not fulfill those 10 years of public service (e.g. resigns from his or her Corps), the tuition fees are due to the school. Sometimes, when an alumnus quits a Corps to join a private company, that company will pay for the tuition fees which are then called the pantoufle (slipper).
The Bachelor programEdit
The Bachelor is a three-year program fully taught in English. Either French nationals or international students are eligible. Applications are opened to final year high school students. Selection is made through an online application file and an oral interview. During the first year of the program, students follow a multidisciplinary curriculum based on mathematics. On the second year, students have to choose between three double majors (Mathematics and Economics, Mathematics and Computer Science, Mathematics and Mechanical Physics).
At the start of the 2018-2019 academic year, the Program had a total of 140 students, 60% of which were international (hold a citizenship other than French).
The master's programEdit
Ecole Polytechnique organizes various Master's programmes (which are more specialized trainings compared to the Polytechnien Engineer programme), by itself or in association with other schools and universities (in the Paris region, École Normale Supérieure, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris VI, École Supérieure d'Électricité (Supélec), other member institutions of ParisTech, Toulouse area and foreign partner universities) on a wide variety of topics. Previous Polytechnicien undergraduates make up about one half of the students. The following Master's programmes are offered:
- Applied Mathematics (Mathematics and Modelling – Probability Theory and Finance – Probability Theory and Aleatory Models)
- Chemistry (Molecular Chemistry)
- Complex Information Systems (Design and Management of Complex Information Systems)
- Computer Science (Fundamental Computer Science)
- Economics (Quantitative Economics & Finance [M1] – Economic Analysis and Policy – Economics of Energy, Environment, Sustainable Development – Economics of Markets and Organizations)
- Electrical Engineering
- Mathematics (Analysis, Arithmetic and Geometry)
- Mechanics (Multiscales and Multiphysics Modeling of Materials and Structures – Materials and Structural Mechanics – Sustainable Building Materials – Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications – Oceans, Atmosphere, Climate, Space Observations)
- Molecular and Cellular Biology (Structural and Functional Engineering of Biomolecules)
- Physics and Applications (Fundamental Concepts in Physics: Theoretical, Quantum, Solid State, Liquid & Soft Matter Physics – Optics, Matter and Plasmas – Materials Science and Nano-Objects – Fusion Sciences – Quantum Devices – Nanosciences – High Energy Physics)
- Sciences, Technologies, Society (Project, Innovation, Conception – Network Industry and Digital Economy – LoPHiSS/Science of Cognition & Complex Systems)
Polytechnique also takes part in two degrees awarded by ParisTech:
- Nuclear Energy
- Transportation and Sustainable Development: Master ParisTech – Fondation Renault
About 50% of highly qualified Master's students come from abroad. Most master courses are taught in English.
The doctoral programEdit
The school also has a doctoral program open to students with a master's degree or equivalent. Doctoral students generally work in the laboratories of the school; they may also work in external institutes or establishments that cannot, or will not, grant doctorates.
About 40% of doctoral students come from abroad.
Polytechnique has many research laboratories operating in various scientific fields (physics, mathematics, computer science, economics, chemistry, biology, etc.), most operated in association with national scientific institutions such as CNRS, CEA, or also INRIA.
Students are represented by a board of 15 students otherwise called "Kes", elected in December by promoting each newly arrived on campus. Kes manages the relationships with teachers, management, alumni and partners ParisTech. It publishes the weekly students, Infokes and animates the life of promotions during the year. Students benefit from a great freedom of initiative to initiate cultural, artistic, social or sporting associations over a hundred students, called "binets".
Campus life is very rich and punctuated and cultural events, performances, lectures, exhibitions and events of all kinds. These student demonstrations are usually held in the evening and are open to the public. The fact that all students (even foreign students) receive a monthly salary makes the student life particularly rich, since everyone can easily find funds to create an event. The AMIX, Association of Master's students of the École Polytechnique. X'Doc brings together students from the graduate school of the École Polytechnique.
An annual gala is organized since the 19th century in Paris Opera in April, the "Bal de l'X" where students go in 19th century uniforms and dresses. It is one of the major events of Paris social life and is regularly visited by high level officials such as Defense minister, CEOs or the French President, who traditionally offers the annual first prize of the Tombola.
Sports are a large part of the student life at Polytechnique, as it is required for all students (except those in exchange programmes) to do 6 hours of sport a week. Students choose their sport in a pool of 16 early on during their military formation, and once they return to the campus several months later, are divided into 16 sections corresponding to their choices. Students of the same section (and thus practicing the same sport) live in the same area and as such usually spend a lot more time together than with others. The sports are badminton, basketball, boxing, climbing, equestrianism, fencing, handball, judo, "raid" (running/cycling/etc.), rowing, rugby, swimming, soccer, tennis, ultimate, and volleyball. The school has several gyms and different terrains, two swimming pools, a dojo and a fencing room, a climbing wall, and even an equestrian center on campus. Various student associations also enable the possibility to practice parachutism, skiing, hiking or sailing, among others. Polytechnique also hosts several sport events, for example the TSGED (Tournoi Sportif des Grandes Écoles de la Défense, an interdisciplinary tournament for aspiring officers studying in French military academies), or the "Jumping de l'X", an international jumping competition.
Notable alumni and academicsEdit
Many Polytechnique graduates occupy prominent positions in government, industry, and research in France. Among its alumni are three Nobel prizes winners, three presidents of France and several leaders in business and industries. Gérard Mourou, Professor at École Polytechnique has been awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2018.
In international rankings, the École Polytechnique is often placed among the top prestigious universities of the world, and one of the best engineering schools of France. The Academic Ranking of World Universities, also known as the Shanghai Rankings, places Polytechnique in 2010 at 201–300 worldwide, and 8–13 in France. The specific criteria employed by the ARWU heavily disfavor Polytechnique mostly because of its small size (and thus low numbers of students and staff), especially in comparison to American universities and even French universities that were ranked higher.
In 2015 Times Higher Education Small Universities Rankings, École Polytechnique is ranked 3rd, after Caltech and Ecole Normale Supérieure of Paris.
The THE-QS World University Rankings and its successor QS World University Rankings (From 2010 two separate rankings are produced by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings and the QS World University Rankings) have placed Polytechnique in 36th position in the 2011 rankings, second among French institutions, behind École normale supérieure.
|2006||37 ( 27)|
|2007||28 ( 9)|
|2008||34 ( 6)|
|2009||36 ( 2)|
|2010||36 ( 0)|
The Mines ParisTech : Professional Ranking World Universities, which looks at the education of the Fortune 500 CEOs, ranks Polytechnique 7th in the world in its 2011 ranking (1st being Harvard University), second among French institutions behind HEC Paris.
|2007||4 ( 0)|
|2008||15 ( 11)|
|2009||14 ( 1)|
|2010||12 ( 2)|
|2011||7 ( 5)|
Notes and referencesEdit
- "About École Polytechnique". École Polytechnique.
- "Les concours de l'X". www.letudiant.fr (in French). Retrieved 20 May 2019.
- Michel Nusimovici, Les écoles de l'an III, 2010.
- "École Polytechnique – History and heritage". École Polytechnique. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
- Becquerel, Allais and Tirole.
- Sadi Carnot (who was the nephew of Carnot the physicist and the grandson of Carnot the École founder), Lebrun and Giscard.
- Jean-Christophe Yoccoz (1994) ; Fields Medal recipient Yoccoz was not a student at Polytechnique because he chose to be educated at École Normale Supérieure (1975-1979), but he completed his Ph.D. under Michael Herman in 1985 in the Centre de mathématiques Laurent-Schwartz, a joint research unit operated under the French National Center for Scientific Research and Polytechnique, created by another Field medalist Laurent Schwartz.
- École Polytechnique – Un cadre unique. Polytechnique.edu. Retrieved on 16 June 2014.
- Code de l'éducation, L675-1
- Arrêté du 12 septembre 2005 relatif à l'exercice de la tutelle du ministre de la défense sur divers organismes publics confiés à la délégation générale pour l'armement, article 1
- Décret n°96-1124 du 20 décembre 1996 relatif à l'organisation et au régime administratif et financier de l'École polytechnique
- Décret n° 2008-960 du 12 septembre 2008 fixant certaines dispositions d'ordre statutaire applicables aux élèves français de l'École polytechnique.
- First Period : General Education Archived 5 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine, web site
- Arrêté du 14 août 2001 relatif à la formation militaire et à la formation à l'exercice des responsabilités des élèves français de l'École polytechnique prévues à l'article 2 du décret n° 2000-900 du 14 septembre 2000 fixant certaines dispositions d'ordre statutaire applicables aux élèves français de l'École polytechnique.
- Partners, official web site
- Décret 87-16 du 14 janvier 1987: by exception to the general rule that staff in public establishments of an administrative character are civil servants, the teaching staff of Polytechnique is hired on contracts.
- Décret n°2000-497 du 5 juin 2000 fixant les dispositions applicables aux personnels enseignants de l'École polytechnique.
- The French 'Grandes Écoles', École Poytechnique web site
- Until 1988, the number of newly admitted French students was around 300 on a yearly basis ; and until 1952, it was between 200 and 250.
- "An International Institute". Ecole Polytechnique. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
- International Exchange Program
- Ingénieur Polytechnicien Program, an English-language page from the school's website, describing the engineering degree.
- ""Ingenieur Polytechnicien"" (PDF). (5.79 MB) p. 74
- DCOM. "École Polytechnique - Accueil site de l'Ecole Polytechnique". www.polytechnique.edu (in French). Retrieved 22 January 2018.
- DCOM. "Les élèves du programme Bachelor ont fait leur rentrée ! | Bachelor". portail.polytechnique.edu (in French). Retrieved 22 January 2018.
- Admission École Polytechnique web site
- École Polytechnique – Vie associative. Polytechnique.edu. Retrieved on 16 June 2014.
- DCOM. "École Polytechnique - Accueil site de l'Ecole Polytechnique". www.polytechnique.edu. Retrieved 26 October 2018.
- Joly, Hervé (2012). "Les dirigeants des grandes entreprises industrielles françaises au 20e siècle". Vingtième Siècle. Revue d'histoire. 2 (114): 16–32. doi:10.3917/vin.114.0016. Retrieved 20 June 2016 – via Cairn.info. (Registration required (help)). Cite uses deprecated parameter
- The world’s best small universities 2016, 25 January 2016
- QS World University Rankings – 2011 Archived 1 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Top Universities (19 December 2012). Retrieved on 16 June 2014.
- "QS World University Rankings 2015/2016". QS official website. 10 September 2015. Retrieved 15 September 2015.
- "Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2015-2016". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- "Academic Rankings of World Universities". Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
- World University Rankings 2010–2011. Times Higher Education. Retrieved on 16 June 2014.
-  Archived 18 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- Clark, Burton R. (1993). The Research Foundations of Graduate Education: Germany, Britain, France, United States, Japan. University of California Press. p. 412. ISBN 978-0-520-07997-7.
- Gillispie, Charles C. (2004). Science and Polity in France, the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Years. Princeton Universitv Press. ISBN 978-0-691-11541-2.
- Grattan-Guinness, Ivor (March 2005). "The "Ecole Polytechnique", 1794–1850: Differences over Educational Purpose and Teaching Practice". The American Mathematical Monthly. 112 (3). Published by: Mathematical Association of America. pp. 233–250. JSTOR 30037440.
- "In France, the Heads No Longer Roll", The New York Times, Sunday, 17 February 2008